A loanword from an unknown source. According to de Vaan, possibly from a Phoenician dialect: compare Phoenician 𐤁𐤀𐤓𐤆𐤄𐤋 (barzel), Classical Syriac ܦܪܙܠܐ (parzlā, “iron”). The word could have entered Latin through Etruscan.
ferrum n (genitive ferrī); second declension
- any tool made of iron
- Urbi ferrō flammāque minitatus est.
- He threatened the city with fire and sword.
- Ferro incumbere.
- To fall on his sword.
- (iron, tool made of iron, weapon made of iron): chalybs
- ferrum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- ferrum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
- FERRUM in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
- Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette, s.v. “ferrum”.
- Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book, London: Macmillan and Co.
- to cut one's way (through the enemies' ranks): ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)
- to ravage with fire and sword: omnia ferro ignique, ferro atque igni or ferro flammaque vastare
- to fight a pitched battle: acie (armis, ferro) decernere
- all have perished by the sword: omnia strata sunt ferro
- (ambiguous) to fly aloft; to be carried into the sky: sublimem or sublime (not in sublime or sublimiter) ferri, abire
- (ambiguous) to be in every one's mouth: per omnium ora ferri
- (ambiguous) to feel an attraction for study: trahi, ferri ad litteras
- (ambiguous) to feel inspired: divino quodam instinctu concitari, ferri (Div. 1. 31. 66)
- (ambiguous) to take a higher tone (especially of poets and orators): exsurgere altius or incitatius ferri
- (ambiguous) to be carried away by one's passions: libidine ferri
- (ambiguous) to be carried away by something: praecipitem ferri aliqua re (Verr. 5. 46. 121)
- (ambiguous) to have no principles: caeco impetu ferri
- (ambiguous) to throw oneself heart and soul into politics: studio ad rem publicam ferri
- (ambiguous) to throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword: strictis gladiis in hostem ferri
- ferrum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
- ferrum in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
- ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 214
- ^ Klein, Dr. Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1971.