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HebrewEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Compare Akkadian 𒆒 (napašu, to breath), 𒍣 (napištu, life), Arabic ﻧﹷﻔﹿس (a soul, a life), and Ge'ez ነፍስ (näfs).

NounEdit

נֶפֶשׁ (néfeshf (plural indefinite נְפָשׁוֹת, singular construct נֶפֶשׁ־, plural construct נַפְשׁוֹת־) [pattern: קֶטֶל]

  1. a soul (spirit of a person or animal)
  2. life (the state of being alive, of living)
    • Genesis 9:5, with translation of the Jewish Publication Society:
      וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם
      umiyád haadám miyád ísh achív edrósh et-néfesh haadám
      and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the life of man
  3. a person (human being)
    • Genesis 36:6, with translation of the Jewish Publication Society:
      וַיִּקַּח עֵשָׂו אֶת־נָשָׁיו וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בְּנֹתָיו וְאֶת־כָּל־נַפְשׁוֹת בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־קִנְיָנוֹ
      vayikách esáv et-nasháv v'et-banáv v'et-b'notáv v'et-kol-nafshót betó v'et-miknéhu v'et-kol-b'hemtó v'ét kol-kinyanó
      And Esau took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the souls of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his possessions
    • Leviticus 21:1, with translation of the Jewish Publication Society:
      לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו
      l'néfesh lo-yitamá b'amáv
      There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people
  4. will (intent, volition)
    • Genesis 23:8, with translation of the Jewish Publication Society:
      אִם־יֵשׁ אֶת־נַפְשְׁכֶם לִקְבֹּר אֶת־מֵתִי מִלְּפָנַי
      im-yésh et-nafsh'chém likbór et-metí mil'fanáy
      If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight
  5. (dated) breath
    • Job 41:13, with translation of the New International Version:
      נַפְשׁוֹ גֶּחָלִים תְּלַהֵט וְלַהַב מִפִּיו יֵצֵא׃‎‎ ― Its breath sets coals ablaze, and flames dart from its mouth.

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From נפש, in the sense where meaning "rest"

VerbEdit

נָפַשׁ (nafásh) (pa'al construction)

  1. to go on holiday/vacation
ConjugationEdit