language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
to speak; to say; talk; word
|simp. and trad.
- Cantonese (Jyutping): man4 jin4
- Hakka (Sixian, PFS): vùn-ngièn / vùn-ngiàn
- Min Nan (POJ): bûn-giân / bûn-gân
- Wu (Wiktionary): ven hhe (T3)
- Min Nan
- (Hokkien: Quanzhou, mainstream Taiwanese, Xiamen)
- (Hokkien: Zhangzhou)
- Literary Chinese; literary language used from the fall of the Han dynasty (220 CE) to the early 20th century.
- Classical Chinese; literary language used in old China
Careful usage distinguishes between 文言 (literary writing, used from the fall of the Han dynasty (220 CE) to the early 20th century) on the one hand, and 古文 (“Ancient Writing”) or, formally, 古典漢語 (“Classical Chinese”) (Classical Chinese, used from the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BCE) (especially the Spring and Autumn Period), through to the end of the Han Dynasty (220 CE)) on the other. However, the terms are often conflated.
|Kanji in this term|
- wording (esp. of written text); classical Chinese literary style; traditional written Chinese
- Classical Chinese
|Hanja in this term|