See also: , 𠬠, and
U+6587, 文
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6587

[U+6586]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6588]
U+2F42, ⽂
KANGXI RADICAL SCRIPT

[U+2F41]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F43]
U+3246, ㉆
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH SCHOOL

[U+3245]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+3247]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 67, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 卜大 (YK), four-corner 00400, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #67, .

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

  • 𘱒 (Khitan Small Script)

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 477, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 831, character 39
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2169, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6587

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogram (指事): a man with a painted or tattooed chest – original form of . In current form, tattoo has vanished, so simply an outline of a man (head, outstretched arms, legs, chest). Compare , which has no chest.

Etymology edit

Possibly a derivation, with -n nominal suffix, of (*mɯː) "soot (obs.), ink (obs.), coal" (Schuessler, 2007).

Semantic shift: "pattern, tattoo (made of soot)", "written glyph (made of ink)" > "literature" > "refined, cultured" (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • man4-2 - “writing; (written) language”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /uən³⁵/
    Harbin /uən²⁴/
    Tianjin /vən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /uẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /və̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /uən⁴²/
    Xi'an /vẽ²⁴/
    Xining /uə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /vəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /və̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /vɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /uən²¹³/
    Chengdu /uən³¹/
    Guiyang /uen²¹/
    Kunming /uə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /un²⁴/
    Hefei /uən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /vəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /uŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /və̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /vəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /vən¹³/
    Hangzhou /ven²¹³/
    Wenzhou /vaŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /uʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /uɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /uən¹³/
    Xiangtan /uən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /un⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /vun¹¹/
    Taoyuan /vun¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mɐn²¹/
    Nanning /mɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /mɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /bun³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /uŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /buŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /vun³¹/
    /mui³¹/ ~昌

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (59)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter mjun
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨun/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /miun/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miuən/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mun/
    Li
    Rong
    /miuən/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭuən/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯uən/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    wén
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    man4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    wén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjun ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə[n]/
    English ornate

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13015
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯn/

    Definitions edit

    1. Original form of (wén, “mark, pattern, design, tattoo, decoration”).
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  wén rú lí [Pinyin]  ―  having a pattern like that of a wild cat
    2. Original form of (wén rú lí, “to tattoo”).
        ―  wénshēn  ―  to tattoo
        ―  wénmiàn  ―  face tattoo
    3. writing; literary composition; literature (Classifier: c)
        ―  wénzhāng  ―  article, essay
        ―  sǎnwén  ―  prose
      不對題不对题  ―  wénbùduìtí  ―  (of writing or speech) to be beside the point; to be off-topic; to be irrelevant to the subject
      唔錯 [Cantonese, trad.]
      唔错 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ni1 pin1 man4-2 se2 dak1 m4 co3. [Jyutping]
      This essay is written quite well.
    4. official document
    5. literary language; Literary Chinese
      半白  ―  bànwénbànbái  ―  half literary, half vernacular
    6. Short for 文讀文读 (wéndú, “literary reading”).
    7. script; written form
      甲骨  ―  jiǎgǔwén  ―  oracle bone script
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  Shū tóng wén, chē tóng guǐ. [Pinyin]  ―  Same ruts for carriages, same script for writing. (i.e., universal standards)
      天城  ―  tiānchéngwén  ―  Devanagari
    8. (written) language
      Antonym:
        ―  zhōngwén  ―  Chinese
        ―  yīngwén  ―  English
    9. culture
        ―  wénhuà  ―  culture
        ―  wénmíng  ―  civilization
    10. liberal arts; humanities
    11. natural or social phenomenon
        ―  tiānwén  ―  astronomy
        ―  rénwén  ―  humanities; letters
    12. ritual; etiquette
      縟節缛节  ―  fánwénrùjié  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    13. of a government position, non-military: civil, civilian
        ―  wénzhí  ―  civilian post
        ―  wénguān  ―  civil official
        ―  wén  ―  civilian and military
    14. gentle; refined
        ―  wén  ―  refined, cultured
        ―  wén  ―  elegant, refined
    15. 47th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "pattern, repetition" (𝌴)
    16. (archaic) Classifier for coins.
    17. (numismatics) mill (a tenth of a cent)
        ―  wén  ―  one mill
    18. () (telegraphy) the twelfth day of a month
      夕大火  ―  Wénxī Dàhuǒ  ―  1938 Changsha fire
    19. a surname
        ―  Wén Tiānxiáng  ―  Wen Tianxiang (Chinese politician and poet in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty)

    Pronunciation 2 edit


    Definitions edit

    1. to cover
        ―  wénguò, wènguò  ―  to cover one's fault

    Pronunciation 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“(Cantonese) yuan; dollar; buck”).
    (This character is a variant form of ).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    もん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (mjun, ornate; a kind of coin; language, literature, a letter, a character).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (もん) (mon

    1. the mon, an old currency
    2. a unit of length for measuring the size of one's foot (from the way that the mon coins would be lined up and used as a kind of inch marker)
    3. a character, a letter
    4. writing, something written
    5. a magical spell
    6. (also spelled ) a design, a pattern
    7. (also spelled ) a 家紋 (kamon, family crest)
    Usage notes edit

    The design and crest senses are more often spelled .

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぶん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    A later borrowing from Middle Chinese. Compare modern Min Nan reading bûn, Hakka vûn.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぶん) (bun

    1. (grammar) a sentence
    2. writing, composition
    3. a design or pattern as decoration
    4. literature, learning, scholarship
    5. elegance, refinement (especially of writing or wording)
    6. a saying, an aphorism, a proverb
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふみ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Possibly a shift from an older Middle Chinese-derived reading pun.[3] Earlier Japanese writing was ambiguous regarding the final n sound spelled in modern Japanese, with this sound often spelled (and possibly pronounced) as (mu) instead.

    */pumu//pumi//ɸumi/

    This reading appears in the Heian period, in works such as The Tale of Genji.[3][1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ふみ) (fumi

    1. writing, something written
    2. a letter (written communication), an epistle
    3. (archaic) study, scholarship (especially of classical Chinese)
    4. a style of 家紋 (kamon, family crest)
    Synonyms edit
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    あや
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Uncertain. Appears in texts from the early Heian period.[3][1] Compare Miyako あやぐ (ayagu), あーぐ (āgu).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (あや) (aya

    1. (also spelled , )
      1. a pattern, a design, especially one with diagonally crossing lines
      2. a diagonal crossing
      3. a flowery expression or turn of phrase
      4. a plot, a scheme
      5. a refrain or recurring phrase in a piece of music
      6. a harder vein or grain in a leaf or piece of wood or bamboo
      7. a stain, a blemish
      8. a mediator, a go-between (apparently from the way that a go-between can make the relationship more indirect and indistinct)
      9. a small indistinct fluctuation in a trend line
    2. (also spelled , )
      1. a kind of woven silk textile with a diagonally crossing pattern
      2. short for 綾織 (ayaori): a twill weave; someone who weaves twill
      3. short for 綾竹 (ayadake): in a loom, a bamboo pole placed between the heddle and the back beam or platen, used to improve the handling
      4. short for 綾取り (ayatori): cat's cradle
    Usage notes edit

    For the second group of senses, the spelling is more common.

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Kyōsuke Kindaichi, Tadao Yamada, Takeshi Shibata, Kenji Sakai, Yasuo Kuramochi, and Akio Yamada, editors (1997) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC mjun). Recorded as Middle Korean (mwun) (Yale: mwun) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 글월 (geurwol mun))

    1. Hanja form? of (writing).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: văn[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: văn[1][2][4], von[3][5][4], vằn[1][2]

    1. chữ Hán form of văn (literature; letters; culture; civilization).

    Compounds edit

    References edit