Wiktionary:About Chinese/Hakka

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Wikipedia uses Pha̍k-fa-sṳ (PFS) to transcribe the Sixian dialect of Hakka and Guangdong Romanization (GD) for the Meixian dialect. See Module:hak-pron for the code.

InitialsEdit

PFS HRS GD Hagfa
Pinyim
IPA Examples Notes
N. Sixian S. Sixian Meixian
p b [p]
ph p [pʰ]
m [m]
f [f]
v [v ~ ʋ]
t d [t]
th t [tʰ]
n [n]
l [l]
k g [k]
k(i) g(i) [k] [c]
kh k [kʰ]
kh(i) k(i) [kʰ] [cʰ]
ng [ŋ] 𠊎
ng(i) [ɲ]
h [h]
h(i) [h] [ç]
ch z [t͡s]
ch(i) j [t͡ɕ]
chh c [t͡sʰ]
chh(i) q [t͡ɕʰ]
s [s]
s(i) x [ɕ] 西
y(i) -(i) ~ r(i) y(i) y(i) [∅] [∅ ~ j] [∅] The i is omitted in PFS, GD and Hagfa Pinyim
if not followed by another vowel.

FinalsEdit

PFS HRS GD Hagfa
Pinyim
IPA Examples Notes
N. Sixian S. Sixian Meixian
ii i /ɨ/, /z̩/ Only with initials [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
i /i/ Only with initials other than [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
u /u/
a /a/
ia /ia/
oa ua /ua/
e ê e /e/ 倈~
ie ie /ie/ 梅:~個
oe ue ue /ue/ 狀聲詞
o /o/
io /io/
- uo - /uo/ Merged with /o/ in Sixian
m /m̩/ ~係
n /n̩/
ng - ng /ŋ̍/ - Merged with /n̩/ in Meixian
ai /ai/
iai - /iai/ Merged with /ie/ in N. Sixian
oai uai /uai/
oi /oi/
ioi - ioi /ioi/ - 𤸁 Merged with /oi/ in Meixian
ui /ui/
iui /iui/
au /au/
iau /iau/
eu êu eu /eu/
iu /iu/
ṳm iim em im /ɨm/ /əm/ Only with initials [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
im /im/ Only with initials other than [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
am /am/
iam /iam/
em êm em /em/
ṳn iin en in /ɨn/ /ən/ Only with initials [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
in /in/ Only with initials other than [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
an /an/
ian - /ian/ Merged with /ien/ in N. Sixian; only with initials /k/, /kʰ/, /ŋ/, /h/
oan uan /uan/
en ên en /en/
ien iên ian /ien/ Usually only with initials other than /k/, /kʰ/, /ŋ/, /h/ in S. Sixian and Meixian
oen uen uên uen /uen/
on /on/
ion /ion/
- uon - /uon/ Merged with /on/ in Sixian
un /un/
iun /iun/
ang /aŋ/
iang /iaŋ/
oang uang /uaŋ/
ong /oŋ/
iong /ioŋ/
- uong - /uoŋ/ Merged with /oŋ/ in Sixian
ung /uŋ/
iung /iuŋ/
ṳp iib eb ib /ɨp̚/ /əp̚/ Only with initials [t͡s], [s]
ip ib /ip̚/ Only with initials other than [t͡s], [s]
ap ab /ap̚/
iap iab /iap̚/
ep eb êb eb /ep̚/ 一~鹽
ṳt iid ed id /ɨt̚/ /ət̚/ Only with initials [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
it id /it̚/ Only with initials other than [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s]
at ad /at̚/
iat iad - /iat̚/ Merged with /iet̚/ in N. Sixian; only with initials /k/, /kʰ/, /ŋ/, /h/
oat uad /uat̚/
et ed êd ed /et̚/
iet ied iêd iad /iet̚/ 分~ Usually only with initials other than /k/, /kʰ/, /ŋ/, /h/ in S. Sixian and Meixian
oet ued uêd ued /uet̚/
ot od /ot̚/ ~病
ut ud /ut̚/
iut iud /iut̚/
ak ag /ak̚/
iak iag /iak̚/
oak uag /uak̚/
ok og /ok̚/
iok iog /iok̚/
- uog - /uok̚/ 𢼛 Merged with /ok̚/ in Sixian
uk ug /uk̚/
iuk iug /iuk̚/

TonesEdit

Tone name Dark Level
陰平
Light Level
陽平
Rising
上聲
Departing
去聲
Dark Entering
陰入
Light Entering
陽入
Tone number 1 2 3 4 5 6
N. Sixian ˨˦ 24 ˩ 11 ˧˩ 31 ˥ 55 ˨ 2 ˥ 5
S. Sixian ˨˦ 24 / ˧ 33
Meixian ˦ 44 ˥˧ 53 ˩ 1
Example
PFS fu fuk fu̍k
HRS fuˊ / fu⁺ fuˇ fu` fu fug` fug
GD / Hagfa Pinyim fu1 fu2 fu3 fu4 fug5 fug6

ReferencesEdit