See also: and -ㅅ-

Korean edit

Etymology edit


Pronunciation edit

Particle edit


  1. (colloquial) a sentence-final emphatic particle, most common among younger speakers
    거기 !Geogi seot!Stop!
    !Gajat!Let's go!
    힘내...Himnaerat...Good luck... (chatspeak)
    • 2019, 조광일 [jogwang'il], “생활 속 작은 실천이 지구를 살린다 [saenghwal sok jageun silcheoni jigureul sallinda]”, in
      따로 버려야 해
      ttaro beoryeoya hae-yot
      You need to throw them away separately!

Related terms edit

  • (-p, colloquial particle connoting certitude)

Middle Korean edit

Alternative forms edit

These are the prescribed orthographic variants of - (-s) in Sejong's original vision of the Hangul script, represented in the very early texts Hunmin jeongeum eonhae (1446) and Yongbi eocheonga (1447) which were supervised by the king himself.

  • (between obstruents) - (-s)
  • (between sonorants) - (-z)
  • (after - (-ng) and before an obstruent) - (-k)
  • (after - (-n) and before an obstruent) - (-t)
  • (after - (-m) and before an obstruent) - (-p)
  • (after - (-l) or any vowel and before an obstruent) - (-q)

This reflects the allomorphy taken by the particle, discussed below. This proved to be very cumbersome in practice, not being fully implemented even in the two early texts themselves, and was abandoned almost immediately after Sejong's death. Virtually all subsequent Middle Korean texts uniformly use - (-s).

Etymology edit

From Old Korean (inanimate genitive particle).

Pronunciation edit

  • (between obstruents) IPA(key): [s]
  • (between sonorants) IPA(key): [z]
  • (after a sonorant and before an obstruent) Tensing of the subsequent obstruent

Particle edit


  1. of, -s; Genitive marker used for an inanimate noun or for an honored animate noun.
    • 1446, Hunminjeongeum eonhae 訓民正音諺解 / 훈민정음언해:
      나랏〮말〯ᄊᆞ미〮 (듀ᇰ)(귁〮)에〮 달아〮
      nàlá-s mǎlssòm-í TYÙNG.KWÚYK-éy tàlGá
      The language of the country being different from China
    • 1447, Seokbo sangjeol 釋譜詳節 / 석보상절, page 6:41a:
      부텻 모〮미〮 여러〮 가짓〮 (샤ᇰ〮)이〮 ᄀᆞᄌᆞ샤〮
      Pwùthyè-s mwóm-í yèlé kàcí-s SYÁNG-í kòcòsyá
      The body of the Buddha having forms of many kinds
  2. Used after another particle, especially the locative particles, to mark it as attributing the subsequent noun.

Descendants edit

  • Korean: (-s-)

See also edit

  • 의〮 (Yale: úy) (genitive marker for non-honored animate nouns)

References edit

  • Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • 나찬연 (Na Chan-yeon) (2020) 중세 국어의 이해 [Understanding Middle Korean], Gyeongjin Chulpan, →ISBN