See also: dem, Dem, DEM, dêm, dëm, and dem.

Jamaican CreoleEdit


From English them.



  1. Used to indicate plurality.
    Di gyal-dem a come.The girls are coming.

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix is only used when there is a clear need to indicate a plural. Otherwise, the plural is implied and understood without any marking.


  • L. Emilie Adams (1991) Understanding Jamaican Patois: An Introduction to Afro-Jamaican Grammar, LMH Publishing, →ISBN, page 13



Misinterpretation of -em. When the old ablative cases of is, eōd, eād, became , , the true forms eōd-em, eād-em were interpreted as eō-dem, eā-dem. The neuter nominative singular id-em is natural and gives earlier emem (= later eundem). The new marker -dem then served to create totidem, tantumdem, ibīdem, etc. Compare tam-en with its later doublet: tan-dem (← *tam-dem).



-dem (not comparable)

  1. (unproductive) demonstrative ending
    ibī (in that place) > ibidem (in that very place)
    ita (in this way) > itidem (likewise)
    quī (whereby) > quidem (indeed)
    is (he, it) > īdem (the same)
    tam (to such an extent) > tandem (finally)
    tantus (of much size) > tantusdem (just as much)
    *pri ("before") > prīdem (long ago; previously)

Derived termsEdit