See also: quí, quì, qûi, quỉ, and -qui

AragoneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin quī.

PronounEdit

qui

  1. (interrogative) who? whom?

CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin quī.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
  2. whoever
    • 2019 August 17, Magí Camps, “Esther Tallada: “Cada traductor és fidel a la seva manera””, in La Vanguardia[1]:
      Qui tradueix hi aporta coses, pren decisions en funció del que li suscita l’original, segons el que creu que és més important destacar.
      Whoever translates contributes things to it; they make decisions depending on what the original arouses in them, according to what they believe is most important to emphasize.

Related termsEdit

Further readingEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle French qui, from Old French qui, from Latin quī.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ki/
  • (file)
  • (file)

PronounEdit

qui ?

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
  2. (relative) who, whom (after a preposition), which, that
    La personne qui parle connait bien son sujet.
    The person who speaks knows his/her subject well.
    Cette voiture bleue qui passe me plait beaucoup.
    This blue car which is passing I like a lot.
    J’aime les chiens qui sont calmes.
    I like dogs that are quiet.
    Un homme à qui j’ai parlé.
    A man to whom I spoke/have spoken.
    Si lugubre que fût l’appartement, c’était un paradis pour qui revenait du lycée.
    Gloomy as the apartment was, it was still a paradise for those who came back from school.
    Rira bien qui rira le dernier.
    Who laughs last laughs well.

Usage notesEdit

After a preposition, qui can only refer to people; things require the pronoun lequel. After the prepositions entre and parmi, lequel must be used whether it refers to a person or a thing.

Derived termsEdit

ConjunctionEdit

qui

  1. (Louisiana, Cajun French) if
    Qui elle en a, ça va faire.
    If she has any, that will do.

Further readingEdit


IdoEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. plural of qua
  2. (relative pronoun) which (plural)
    Esis tre jentila homi qui helpis ni.It was a nice man who helped us.
  3. (interrogative pronoun) who (plural)
    Qui esas ita kerli?Who are these guys?
    (direct question)
    Me ne konocas qui iti esas.I don't know who these are.
    (indirect question)

PronounEdit

qui

  1. plural of quo
  2. (relative pronoun) which (plural)
    Esis tre bona kulteli qui me tranchis per.They were really good knives with which I cut.
  3. (interrogative pronoun) what (plural)
    Qui eventis?What (thing) happened?
    (indicating that several things happened) (direct question)
    Ka tu povas helpar me decidar qui metar?Can you help me to decide what to wear?
    (indicating that several things are to be worn) (indirect question)

Related termsEdit

  • qua (who (person))
  • quo (what (thing))
  • qui (who (plural))
  • pro quo (why)

See alsoEdit


InterlinguaEdit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. (interrogative) who
  2. (relative) who; whom

ItalianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Vulgar Latin *(ec)cu hic, from Latin eccum + hīc.

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

qui

  1. here
    Synonym: qua

Usage notesEdit

qui and qua are mostly interchangeable, but qui has a more punctual meaning whereas qua is more vague, similar to the pair and .

See alsoEdit


LatinEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From earlier quei, from Proto-Italic *kʷoi, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷis, *kʷos.

Alternative formsEdit

  • quei (standard Republican spelling, later esp. to distinguish the plural)

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

quī (feminine quae, neuter quod); relative/interrogative pronoun

  1. (relative) who, that, which
    • 239 BCE – 169 BCE, Ennius, Annales 1, ((fragment in Varro, De Lingua Latina 7.20)):
      Mūsae, quae pedibus magnum pulsātis Olympum
      O Muses, who with your feet press great Olympus...
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Tobit.2.18:
      Quoniam fīliī sānctōrum sumus, et vītam illam expectāmus, quam Deus datūrus est hīs quī fidem suam numquam mūtant ab eō.
      For we are the children of saints, and look for that life which God will give to those that never change their faith from him.
    • c. 480 CEc. 524 CE, Boethius, De philosophiae consolatione 1.1:
      Mors hominum felix, quae se nec dulcibus annis
      Inserit et maestis saepe uocata uenit.
      Fortunate is that human death that doesn't step in during one's sweet years, and comes to the sorrowful after being often callled!
  2. (indefinite, after , nisi, num, ) anyone, any
    • 70 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Eclogues 6.9-10:
      quis tamen haec quoque, sī quis
      captus amōre leget, tē nostrae, Vāre, myrīcae,
      tē nemus omne canet
      If anyone, if anyone reads this captured by love [for these verses], our tamarisks shall sing of you, Varus, and of you every grove shall sing.
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Evangelium secundum Ioannem.3.5:
      Respondit Iesus: amen amen, dico tibi, nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu, non potest introire in regnum Dei
      Jesus replied, "verily verily, I say to you, unless a person is reborn out of water and Spirit, that person can't enter into the kingdom of God."
DeclensionEdit

Irregular. Relative/interrogative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quī quae
Genitive cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dative cui quibus
quīs
Accusative quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Ablative quō quā quō quibus
quīs
  • Common Republican spellings are the gen.sg. quoius, the dat.sg. quoi, and the dat./abl.pl. queis.

AdjectiveEdit

quī (feminine quae, neuter quod); relative/interrogative pronoun

  1. (interrogative) who, what, which
    • 55 BCE, Cicero, De Oratore 2.34:
      Qui enim cantus moderata oratione dulcior inveniri potest? Quod carmen artificiosa verborum conclusione aptius? Qui actor imitanda quam orator suscipienda veritate iucundior?
      What music can be found more sweet than the pronunciation of a well-ordered oration? What poem more agreeable than the skilful structure of prose? What actor has ever given greater pleasure in imitating, than an orator gives in supporting, truth?
  2. (indefinite, after si, nisi, num, ne) anyone, any
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi 340:
      quae peregrīna nāvis in portum advenit, rogitant cuiātis sit
      If any foreign ship comes, they ask where it comes from
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Epistula ad Hebraeos.12.16:
      Ne quis fornicator, aut profanus ut Esau, qui propter unam escam vendidit primitiva sua
      May there not be any fornicator, nor profane person like Esau, who sold his birthright for a single meal.
DeclensionEdit

Irregular. Relative/interrogative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quī quae
Genitive cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dative cui quibus
quīs
Accusative quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Ablative quō quā quō quibus
quīs
  • Common Republican spellings are the genitive singular quoius, the dative singular quoi, and the dative and ablative plural queis.
  • The indefinite adjective is normally qua instead of quae in the nom.f.sg. and nom./acc.npl., but rarely the pronoun.

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Aromanian: tsini, cui
  • Aragonese: qui
  • Catalan: qui
  • French: qui
  • Galician: quen
  • Interlingua: qui

ReferencesEdit

  • qui¹ in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Allen, Joseph Henry; Greenough, James B. (1903) Allen and Greenough's New Latin grammar for schools and colleges: founded on comparative grammar, Boston: Ginn and Company, § 147 (relative pronoun)
  • Allen, Joseph Henry; Greenough, James B. (1903) Allen and Greenough's New Latin grammar for schools and colleges: founded on comparative grammar, Boston: Ginn and Company, § 149 (indefinite adjective)

Etymology 2Edit

Old instrumental case of quis, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷey. Cognate with English why.

AdverbEdit

quī (not comparable)

  1. (interrogative) In what way? how? whereby? by what means? why?
  2. (relative) wherewith, whereby, wherefrom, how; that, in order that
    c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico VII.11:
    Ea quī cōnficeret, C. Trebōnium lēgātum relinquit.
    To complete these arrangements, he leaves C. Trebonius in command.
  3. (indefinite, with hercle, edepol, at, quippe, ut) somehow, surely

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • qui² in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • qui in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • qui in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) the visible world: haec omnia, quae videmus
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae terra gignit
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae e terra gignuntur
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae a terra stirpibus continentur
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea quorum stirpes terra continentur (N. D. 2. 10. 26)
    • (ambiguous) the atmosphere: aer qui est terrae proximus
    • (ambiguous) eastern, western Germany: Germania quae or Germaniae ea pars quae, ad orientem, occidentem vergit
    • (ambiguous) where are you going: quo tendis?
    • (ambiguous) I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • (ambiguous) nothing is more tiresome to me than..: nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) since the time that, since (at the beginning of a sentence): ex quo tempore or simply ex quo
    • (ambiguous) the middle ages: media quae vocatur aetas
    • (ambiguous) Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, quo nemo tum fuit clarior
    • (ambiguous) Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimus
    • (ambiguous) it is more than twenty years ago: amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) on the day after, which was September 5th: postridie qui fuit dies Non. Sept. (Nonarum Septembrium) (Att. 4. 1. 5)
    • (ambiguous) to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th: hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non. Sept.
    • (ambiguous) to fail to see what lies before one: quod ante pedes est or positum est, non videre
    • (ambiguous) the world of sense, the visible world: res quas oculis cernimus
    • (ambiguous) those to whom we owe our being: ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximus
    • (ambiguous) the rest of one's life: quod reliquum est vitae
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: qua aetate es?
    • (ambiguous) our contemporaries; men of our time: homines qui nunc sunt (opp. qui tunc fuerunt)
    • (ambiguous) how are you getting on: quo loco res tuae sunt?
    • (ambiguous) under such circumstances: quae cum ita sint
    • (ambiguous) from this point of view; similarly: quo in genere
    • (ambiguous) by some chance or other: nescio quo casu (with Indic.)
    • (ambiguous) Fortune's favourite: is, quem fortuna complexa est
    • (ambiguous) it is most fortunate that..: peropportune accidit, quod
    • (ambiguous) you were right in...; you did right to..: recte, bene fecisti quod...
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas, quam Plato finxit
    • (ambiguous) this is more plausible than true: haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt
    • (ambiguous) a thing which is rather (very) dubious: quod aliquam (magnam) dubitationem habet (Leg. Agr. 1. 4. 11)
    • (ambiguous) as far as I know: quod sciam
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: id quod voluit consecutus est
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: ad id quod voluit pervenit
    • (ambiguous) abstruse studies: studia, quae in reconditis artibus versantur (De Or. 1. 2. 8)
    • (ambiguous) the usual subjects taught to boys: doctrinae, quibus aetas puerilis impertiri solet (Nep. Att. 1. 2)
    • (ambiguous) the usual subjects taught to boys: artes, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem informari solet
    • (ambiguous) men of that profession: qui ista profitentur
    • (ambiguous) philosophical subjects: quae in philosophia tractantur
    • (ambiguous) disciples of Plato, Platonists: qui sunt a Platone or a Platonis disciplina; qui profecti sunt a Platone; Platonici
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus (Acad. 1. 5. 19)
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et moribus disputatur
    • (ambiguous) theoretical, speculative philosophy: philosophia, quae in rerum contemplatione versatur, or quae artis praeceptis continetur
    • (ambiguous) practical philosophy: philosophia, quae in actione versatur
    • (ambiguous) to determine the nature and constitution of the subject under discussion: constituere, quid et quale sit, de quo disputetur
    • (ambiguous) to bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul: argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur
    • (ambiguous) a proof of this is that..: argumento huic rei est, quod
    • (ambiguous) it follows from this that..: sequitur (not ex quo seq.) ut
    • (ambiguous) it follows from this that..: ex quo, unde, hinc efficitur ut
    • (ambiguous) the point at issue: id, de quo agitur or id quod cadit in controversiam
    • (ambiguous) the connection of thought: ratio, qua sententiae inter se excipiunt.
    • (ambiguous) I have exhausted all my material: copiam quam potui persecutus sum
    • (ambiguous) a digression, episode: quod ornandi causa additum est
    • (ambiguous) I have nothing to write about: non habeo, non est quod scribam
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod (mihi) propositum est
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod quaerimus (quaeritur)
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: institutum or id quod institui
    • (ambiguous) to set some one a theme for discussion: ponere alicui, de quo disputet
    • (ambiguous) to let those present fix any subject they like for discussion: ponere iubere, qua de re quis audire velit (Fin. 2. 1. 1)
    • (ambiguous) the question at issue: res, de qua nunc quaerimus, quaeritur
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae est vis huius verbi?
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?
    • (ambiguous) what do we understand by 'a wise man': quem intellegimus sapientem?
    • (ambiguous) what do we mean by 'virtue': quae intellegitur virtus
    • (ambiguous) as the proverb says: ut or quod or quomodo aiunt, ut or quemadmodum dicitur
    • (ambiguous) Cicero says in his 'Laelius.: Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo) or in eo (not suo) libro, qui inscribitur Laelius
    • (ambiguous) a book which is attributed to some one: liber qui fertur alicuius
    • (ambiguous) the book is attributed to an unknown writer: liber refertur ad nescio quem auctorem
    • (ambiguous) the reader: legentes, ii qui legunt
    • (ambiguous) a letter to Atticus: epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa or quae ad A. scripta est
    • (ambiguous) I am pained, vexed, sorry: aegre, graviter, moleste fero aliquid (or with Acc. c. Inf. or quod)
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing I am more interested in than..: nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)
    • (ambiguous) an atheist: qui deum esse negat
    • (ambiguous) and may God grant success: quod deus bene vertat!
    • (ambiguous) and may heaven avert the omen! heaven preserve us from this: quod di immortales omen avertant! (Phil. 44. 11)
    • (ambiguous) God forbid: quod abominor! (procul absit!)
    • (ambiguous) may heaven's blessing rest on it: quod bonum, faustum, felix, fortunatumque sit! (Div. 1. 45. 102)
    • (ambiguous) movable, personal property: res, quae moveri possunt; res moventes (Liv. 5. 25. 6)
    • (ambiguous) the necessaries of life: quae ad victum pertinent
    • (ambiguous) a livelihood: quae suppeditant ad victum (Off. 1. 4. 12)
    • (ambiguous) I have no means, no livelihood: non habeo, qui (unde) vivam
    • (ambiguous) to talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation: in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore
    • (ambiguous) imports and exports: res, quae importantur et exportantur
    • (ambiguous) the debtor: debitor, or is qui debet
    • (ambiguous) the perfume exhaled by flowers: odores, qui efflantur e floribus
    • (ambiguous) domestic animals: animalia quae nobiscum degunt (Plin. 8. 40)
    • (ambiguous) a legislator: qui leges scribit (not legum lator)
    • (ambiguous) aristocracy (as a form of government): civitas, quae optimatium arbitrio regitur
    • (ambiguous) the aristocracy (as a party in politics): boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam agunt
    • (ambiguous) the aristocracy (as a social class): nobiles; nobilitas; qui nobilitate generis excellunt
    • (ambiguous) the public income from the mines: pecunia publica, quae ex metallis redit
    • (ambiguous) men of military age: qui arma ferre possunt or iuventus
    • (ambiguous) men exempt from service owing to age: qui per aetatem arma ferre non possunt or aetate ad bellum inutiles
    • (ambiguous) veterans; experienced troops: qui magnum in castris usum habent
    • (ambiguous) by the longest possible forced marches: quam maximis itineribus (potest)
    • (ambiguous) the cohort on guard-duty: cohors, quae in statione est
    • (ambiguous) subjects: qui imperio subiecti sunt
    • (ambiguous) to sum up..: ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciam
    • (ambiguous) I will give you my true opinion: dicam quod sentio
    • (ambiguous) this I have to say: haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicam
    • (ambiguous) without wishing to boast, yet..: quod vere praedicare possum
    • (ambiguous) which I can say without offence, arrogance: quod non arroganter dixerim
    • (ambiguous) to except the fact that..: praeterquam quod or nisi quod
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo intellegitur or intellegi potest, debet
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo perspicuum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: id quod maximum, gravissimum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: quod caput est
    • (ambiguous) what is more important: quod maius est

Etymology 3Edit

Inflection of quis.

PronounEdit

quī m pl

  1. nominative masculine plural of quis

Middle FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old French qui, from Latin quī.

PronounEdit

qui

  1. who
  2. which (when referring to a non-human)

DescendantsEdit


Old FrenchEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin quī.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. who
    • c. 1170, Christian of Troyes, Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion, lines 1–2:
      Li boins roys Artus de Bretaigne,
      La qui proeche nous ensengne
      The good king Arthur of Britain
      Who teaches us valiance

DescendantsEdit


Old OccitanEdit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. Alternative form of cui

Old SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin quī.

PronounEdit

qui

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
  2. (relative) who, whom (after a preposition), which, that

Further readingEdit


PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • Rhymes: -i

Etymology 1Edit

NounEdit

qui m (plural quis)

  1. chi (name of the Greek letter Χ)

Etymology 2Edit

PronounEdit

qui

  1. Eye dialect spelling of que, representing Brazil Portuguese.



SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin quī.

PronounEdit

qui

  1. (relative, obsolete) who, whom

Further readingEdit



VietnameseEdit

NounEdit

qui

  1. Alternative spelling of quy.

VerbEdit

qui

  1. Alternative spelling of quy.