Albanian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Related to , mu, mua (me) and im (my, mine). -em is the Tosk and Standard Albanian variant of the Gheg personal suffix -na (I, me). The suffix -em (I, me) indicates the 1st person singular, mediopassive, present (same as Gheg -na). Used the same way as Greek verb suffix "-μαι/-mai" (also 1st pers., sg., mediopassive, indicative, present).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. (personal suffix) used to form the 1st person singular present tense of verbs in mediopassive voice (indicative mood).
  2. Forms verbs in mediopassive voice from active voice
    active bëj (I do, make, appear) + h (mediopassive marker) + -emmediopassive bëhem (I become, turn into)
    active zbeh (I make white(er), pale(er)) + -emmediopassive zbehem (I'm getting pale(er), white(er))
  3. Forms mediopassive verbs from adjectives
    adjective shkurt (short) + o-steem + h (mediopassive marker) + -emmediopassive verb shkurtohem (I become shorter)
mediopassive personal suffixes (1st person singular)
indicative subjunctive conditional optative admirative
(dëftore) (lidhore) (kushtore) (dëshirore) (habitore)
present -em () -em (do ) -esha (u) -sha / -fsha (u) -am
continuous present (po) -em (po ) -em (po do ) -esha (po u) -am
imperfect -esha () -esha (u) -ësha
continuous imperfect (po) -esha (po ) -esha (po u) -ësha
aorist (u) -a / (u) -va - - - -
perfect j-am (+ participle) () j-em (+ participle) qof-sha (+ participle) qenk-am (+ participle)
past perfect I isha (+ participle) () isha (+ participle) (do ) isha (+ participle) qenk-ësha (+ participle)
past perfect II (aorist II) q-eshë (+ participle)
future I k-am (për t'u + participle) (do ) -em
future perfect k-am (për qenë + participle) (do ) j-em (+ participle)

Related terms edit

Bislama edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

English him, 'em

Suffix edit

-em

  1. Indicates a transitive verb
    • 2008, Miriam Meyerhoff, Social lives in language--sociolinguistics and multilingual speech[1], →ISBN, page 344:
      Bang i wantem mi faen from mi ovaspen.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Usage notes edit

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is a, e, or o (or a diphthong ending in one of those), then the suffix is -em. Otherwise, use -im or -um.

Chuukese edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. (added to possessive nouns) our (exclusive)

Related terms edit

Etruscan edit

Romanization edit

-em

  1. Romanization of -𐌄𐌌

German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German -em, -eme, from Proto-West Germanic *-umē.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. Masculine and neuter dative suffix, used in most determiners/pronouns and in strong adjectives.

Etymology 2 edit

Through reduction of the unstressed syllable.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /əm/, /ɛm/
  • Most or all places are locally pronounced with /əm/, but /ɛm/ is not rarely heard from outsiders.

Suffix edit

-em

  1. Alternative form of -heim (placename suffix)
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Backformation from Graphem, Morphem, Phonem.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈeːm/
  • (file)

Suffix edit

-em f

  1. (linguistics) -eme
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. (personal suffix, indefinite conjugation) Forms the first-person singular present indicative of -ik verbs.
    eszik (to eat) + ‎-em → ‎eszem (I eat, I am eating)
  2. (personal suffix, definite conjugation) Forms the definite first-person singular present indicative of verbs.
    ért (to understand) + ‎-em → ‎értem (I understand [him/her/it])
  3. (possessive suffix) my (first-person singular, single possession)
    kert (garden) + ‎-em → ‎kertem (my garden)
Usage notes edit
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -ok is added to back-vowel verbs
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -ök is added to rounded front-vowel verbs
    -om may be added to back-vowel -ik verbs
    -em may be added to unrounded front-vowel -ik verbs
    -öm may be added to rounded front-vowel -ik verbs
  • (personal suffix, definite conjugation) Variants:
    -om is added to back-vowel verbs
    -em is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -öm is added to rounded front-vowel verbs
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -m is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    hajó (boat) + ‎-m → ‎a hajóm (my boat)
    kocsi (car) + ‎-m → ‎a kocsim (my car)
    palota (palace) + ‎-m → ‎a palotám (my palace)
    érme (coin) + ‎-m → ‎az érmém (my coin)
    -am is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    ház (house) + ‎-am → ‎a házam (my house)
    -om is added to the other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    kor (age) + ‎-om → ‎a korom (my age)
    -em is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    kert (garden) + ‎-em → ‎a kertem (my garden)
    fül (ear) + ‎-em → ‎a fülem (my ear)
    -öm is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    öröm (joy) + ‎-öm → ‎az örömöm (my joy)
Declension edit

(possessive suffix):

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -em
accusative -emet
dative -emnek
instrumental -emmel
causal-final -emért
translative -emmé
terminative -emig
essive-formal -emként
essive-modal -emül
inessive -emben
superessive -emen
adessive -emnél
illative -embe
sublative -emre
allative -emhez
elative -emből
delative -emről
ablative -emtől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-emé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-eméi

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun or a verb to form a noun. A final single -l may become long -ll-.
    jel (sign) + ‎-em → ‎jellem (character)
    szél (wind) + ‎-em → ‎szellem (ghost, spirit)
    illik (to suit, to be proper) + ‎-em → ‎illem (good manners, proper behaviour)
Usage notes edit
  • (noun-forming suffix) Variants:
    -am is added to back-vowel words
    -em is added to front-vowel words
Declension edit
Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -em -emek
accusative -emet -emeket
dative -emnek -emeknek
instrumental -emmel -emekkel
causal-final -emért -emekért
translative -emmé -emekké
terminative -emig -emekig
essive-formal -emként -emekként
essive-modal -emül -emekül
inessive -emben -emekben
superessive -emen -emeken
adessive -emnél -emeknél
illative -embe -emekbe
sublative -emre -emekre
allative -emhez -emekhez
elative -emből -emekből
delative -emről -emekről
ablative -emtől -emektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-emé -emeké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-eméi -emekéi
Possessive forms of -em
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. -emem -emeim
2nd person sing. -emed -emeid
3rd person sing. -eme -emei
1st person plural -emünk -emeink
2nd person plural -emetek -emeitek
3rd person plural -emük -emeik
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

See -ēs (suffix forming third-declension feminine abstract nouns).

Suffix edit

-em f

  1. accusative singular of -ēs

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Suffix edit

-em

  1. first-person singular present active subjunctive of (first conjugation)

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Suffix edit

-em

  1. accusative singular of -s

Old Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Celtic *-mū, from Proto-Indo-European *-mō.[1]

Suffix edit

-em m

  1. Forms occupational nouns.
    flaith (rule) + ‎-em → ‎flaithem (ruler)
    breth (judgement) + ‎-em → ‎brithem (judge)
    fíach (debt) + ‎-em → ‎féchem (debtor)
Inflection edit
Masculine n-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -em -emainL -emain
Vocative -em -emainL -emnaH
Accusative -emainN -emainL -emnaH
Genitive -eman -emanL -emanN
Dative -emainL, -emL -emnaib -emnaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Celtic *-īmā, a verbal noun suffix for -ī- verbs in Celtic. Cognate with Welsh -i, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃.

Suffix edit

-em f

  1. Forms verbal nouns of class A II weak verbs with roots ending in dentals.
    feithid (to watch over) + ‎-em → ‎fethem (watching over)
    moídid (to boast) + ‎-em → ‎moídem (boasting)
    ad·gládathar (to converse with) + ‎-em → ‎acaldam (conversation)
Inflection edit
Feminine ā-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -emL
Vocative -emL
Accusative -imN
Genitive -meH
Dative -imL
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Alternative forms edit
  • -am (after a broad consonant)
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Irish: -amh
  • Scottish Gaelic: -amh

References edit

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*karafyo-(mon)-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 189-190

Pijin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

English him, 'em

Suffix edit

-em

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notes edit

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is a, e, or o (or a diphthong ending in one of those), then the suffix is -em. Otherwise, use -im or -um.

Vlax Romani edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Romani -ǒm.

Suffix edit

-em

  1. Attaches to the perfective stem to form the first-person singular past tense.

Volapük edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. An inanimate collective morpheme for a group of things

Derived terms edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-em

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the first-person plural imperfect/conditional

Derived terms edit

Category Welsh terms suffixed with -em not found