This Proto-Finnic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Two distinct stems that have been conflated into a single paradigm, as per Hakulinen;[1] a case of suppletion.

The oblique stem *-ice- is from Proto-Finno-Ugric *-ńće, *-ńśe, and is cognate with Proto-Samic *-ńčë. The oblique stem is probably original. In many descendants the original nominative can be found in compounds, albeit in reduced form (*naic(e)- > Estonian nais- in naissugu, Finnish nais- in naissuku, Ingrian nais- in naissuku, Karelian nais- in naispuoli, Livonian naiz- in naizjemā, Ludian naiž- in naižluad, Veps naiž- in naižvald, Votic naiz- in naizeläjä).

The origin of the nominative *-inen is less clear; it might be related to *-na (diminutive suffix), in which case the -i- would be analogous to the oblique stem. The suppletion for the nominative case may have served to avoid the original nominative **-ici, when not preceded by a vowel (compare *hiici, *raici, et al). There are at least two other examples for this: *pide*pitkä (instead of **pici, extended with *-ka; yet the older stem *pite- survives in derived forms) and *iće*icek (instead of **ici). If this theory is true, it would further support the theory that *-ice- is the original stem.



  1. -ish, -ic, -like, -y
  2. -en (material something is made of)


Derived termsEdit


  • Estonian: -ne
  • Finnish: -inen, -nen (conflated with *-hinen)
  • Ingrian: -in
  • Karelian: -inen, -ine
  • Livonian: -i[2]
  • Livvi: -ine
  • Veps: -ine
  • Votic: -in
  • Võro: -nõ/-ne


  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.
  2. ^ Renāte Blumberga, Tapio Mäkeläinen, Karl Pajusalu (2013), Lībieši: vēsture, valoda un kultūra, Rīga: Līvõ Kultūr sidām, →ISBN