Reconstruction:Proto-Finnic/-inen

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This Proto-Finnic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-FinnicEdit

EtymologyEdit

Two distinct stems that have been conflated into a single paradigm, as per Hakulinen;[1] a case of suppletion.

The oblique stem *-ice- is from Proto-Finno-Ugric *-ńće, *-ńśe, and is cognate with Proto-Samic *-ńčë. The oblique stem is probably original. In many descendants the original nominative can be found in compounds, albeit in reduced form (*naic(e)- > Estonian nais- in naissugu, Finnish nais- in naissuku, Ingrian nais- in naissuku, Karelian nais- in naispuoli, Livonian naiz- in naizjemā, Ludian naiž- in naižluad, Veps naiž- in naižvald, Votic naiz- in naizeläjä).

The origin of the nominative *-inen is less clear; it might be related to *-na (diminutive suffix), in which case the -i- would be analogous to the oblique stem. The suppletion for the nominative case may have served to avoid the original nominative **-ici, when not preceded by a vowel (compare *hiici, *raici, et al). There are at least two other examples for this: *pide*pitkä (instead of **pici, extended with *-ka; yet the older stem *pite- survives in derived forms) and *iće*icek (instead of **ici). If this theory is true, it would further support the theory that *-ice- is the original stem.

SuffixEdit

*-inen

  1. -ish, -ic, -like, -y
  2. -en (material something is made of)

InflectionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Estonian: -ne
  • Finnish: -inen, -nen (conflated with *-hinen)
  • Ingrian: -in
  • Karelian: -inen, -ine
  • Livonian: -i[2]
  • Livvi: -ine
  • Veps: -ine
  • Votic: -in
  • Võro: -nõ/-ne

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.
  2. ^ Renāte Blumberga, Tapio Mäkeläinen, Karl Pajusalu (2013), Lībieši: vēsture, valoda un kultūra, Rīga: Līvõ Kultūr sidām, →ISBN