See also: ish, Ish, and -ísh

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -ish, -isch, from Old English -isċ (-ish, suffix), from Proto-West Germanic *-isk, from Proto-Germanic *-iskaz (-ish), from Proto-Indo-European *-iskos.

Cognate with Dutch -s; German -isch (whence Dutch -isch); Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish -isk or -sk; Lithuanian -iškas; Russian -ский (-skij); and the Ancient Greek diminutive suffix -ίσκος (-ískos). Doublet of -esque and -ski.

Pronunciation edit

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ɪʃ/
  • (file)

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. (of adjectives from common nouns) Typical of, similar to, being like.
    Her face had a girlish charm.
    • 1859, Harriet Parr (as Holme Lee), Against Wind and Tide, volume 1, p. 273:
      [] ; for she had recently developed a magpie[-]ish tendency to appropriate and conceal trifling matters; []
  2. (of adjectives from adjectives, with a diminutive force) Somewhat, rather.
    Her face had a bluish tinge.
    • 1935, George Goodchild, chapter 5, in Death on the Centre Court:
      By one o'clock the place was choc-a-bloc. […] The restaurant was packed, and the promenade between the two main courts and the subsidiary courts was thronged with healthy-looking youngish people, drawn to the Mecca of tennis from all parts of the country.
  3. (of adjectives from numbers, especially of times and ages) About, approximately.
    We arrived at tennish;  We arrived tennish.
    (Sometime around ten.)
    I couldn't tell his precise age, but he looked fiftyish.
  4. (of adjectives from roots of proper nouns denoting names of nations or regions) Of, belonging, or relating to (a nationality, place, language or similar association with something).
Usage notes edit
  • This is a productive termination used as a regular formative of adjectives (which are sometimes also used as nouns).
  • (of adjectives from common nouns) Many of the words may have a more or less depreciative or contemptuous force.
  • (of adjectives from roots of proper nouns) This is the regular formative of patrial adjectives, with the suffix in some adjectives being contracted to -sh or (especially when t precedes) to -ch, as in Welsh (formerly also Welch), Scotch, Dutch, and French. Some used colloquially or made up on occasion may have a diminutive or derogatory implication.
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Translations edit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -ishen, -ischen, -issen, from Old French -iss-, -is- (a termination of the stem of some forms [present participle, etc.] of certain verbs), from Latin -ēscere, -īscere (an inchoative suffix), the formative -esc-, -isc- (-sc-, Greek -σκ- (-sk-)) being ultimately cognate with English -ish (Etymology 1). See -esce, -escent, etc.

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. (non-productive) An ending found on some verbs; see usage notes.
Usage notes edit
Related terms edit
verbs borrowed from French

References edit

Further reading edit

  • Booker, John Manning (1912) The French “Inchoative” Suffix -iss and the French -ir Conjugation in Middle English[1]

Anagrams edit

Manx edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-ish f

  1. -ish (language)
Usage notes edit
  • Added to names of places or peoples to denote the language spoken in that place or by that people.

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. -self (emphatic)
Usage notes edit
Alternative forms edit
Related terms edit

Derived terms edit

Middle English edit

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. Alternative form of -yssh

Ojibwe edit

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. A suffix denoting the pejorative form of a noun that ends in a consonant.

See also edit

Ottawa edit

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. pejorative

References edit

Jerry Randolph Valentine (2001) Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar, University of Toronto, page 191

Swedish edit

Suffix edit

-ish

  1. (slang) Used to form slang words (that are often identical in meaning to the unsuffixed word).
    Vad händish? (Vad händer?)
    What's up?
    haffish
    haffa
    kebabish
    kebab

Derived terms edit