From Middle English -ish, -isch, from Old English -isċ (“-ish”, suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-iskaz (“-ish”), from Proto-Indo-European *-iskos. Cognate with Dutch -s; German -isch; whence Dutch -isch; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish -isk or -sk; Lithuanian -iškas; and the Ancient Greek diminutive suffix -ίσκος (-ískos).
- (of adjectives from common nouns) Typical of, similar to, being like.
- Her face had a girlish charm.
- (of adjectives from adjectives, with a diminutive force) Somewhat, rather.
- Her face had a greenish tinge.
- 1935, George Goodchild, chapter 5, in Death on the Centre Court:
- By one o'clock the place was choc-a-bloc. […] The restaurant was packed, and the promenade between the two main courts and the subsidiary courts was thronged with healthy-looking youngish people, drawn to the Mecca of tennis from all parts of the country.
- (of adjectives from numbers, especially of times and ages) About, approximately.
- We arrived at tennish; We arrived tennish.(Sometime around ten.)
- I couldn't tell his precise age, but he looked fiftyish.
- (of adjectives from roots of proper nouns denoting names of nations or regions) Of, belonging, or relating to (a nationality, place, language or similar association with something).
- This is a productive termination used as a regular formative of adjectives (which are sometimes also used as nouns).
- (of adjectives from common nouns) Many of the words may have a more or less depreciative or contemptuous force.
- (of adjectives from roots of proper nouns) This is the regular formative of patrial adjectives, with the suffix in some adjectives being contracted to -sh or (especially when t precedes) to -ch, as in Welsh (formerly also Welch), Scotch, Dutch, and French. Some used colloquially or made up on occasion may have a diminutive or derogatory implication.
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
From Middle English -ishen, -ischen, -issen, from Old French -iss-, -is- (a termination of the stem of some forms [present participle, etc.] of certain verbs), from Latin -ēscere, -īscere (an inchoative suffix), the formative -esc-, -isc- (-sc-, Greek -σκ- (-sk-)) being ultimately cognate with English -ish (Etymology 1). See -esce, -escent, etc.
- This is a termination of some English verbs of French origin, or formed on the type of such verbs, having no assignable force, but being merely a terminal relic.
- In some verbs it appears in the form -ise, as in advertise and franchise.
- The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1914
- Booker, John Manning (1912) The French “Inchoative” Suffix -iss and the French -ir Conjugation in Middle English
- -ish (language)
- Added to names of places or peoples to denote the language spoken in that place or by that people.
- -self (emphatic)
- Added to prepositional pronouns to add emphasis (not to create a reflexive pronoun).
- Alternative form of