See also: inen

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-inën. Originally also had the variant -nen, but in the standard language, the two variants have been made distinct by giving them different uses.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /-inen/, [-ine̞n]
  • IPA(key): /-ne(n)/, [-ne̞(n)] (colloquial, dialectal; see usage notes)

Suffix edit

-inen

  1. Creates adjectives:
    1. Creates adjectives signifying a certain quality: -like, -ous, -y
      vuoristo (mountain range) + ‎-inen → ‎vuoristoinen (mountainous)
      sotku (mess) + ‎-inen → ‎sotkuinen (messy)
      talvi (winter) + ‎-inen → ‎talvinen (wintry)
    2. Creates adjectives indicating a material of which something is made: -en
      kulta (gold) + ‎-inen → ‎kultainen (golden)
      puu (tree; wood) + ‎-inen → ‎puinen (wooden)
    3. Creates adjectives from present active participles, indicating a tendency to be/do something.
      taipuva (flexible) + ‎-inen → ‎taipuvainen (inclined, predisposed (to do something))
    4. Creates adjectives from foreign roots: -ic
      demokraatti- + ‎-inen → ‎demokraattinen (democratic)
      konstruktiivi- + ‎-inen → ‎konstruktiivinen (constructive)

Usage notes edit

  • This suffix is highly productive.
  • All -inen nominals belong to declension class 38 (nainen). Nominals belonging to this class have special combining forms.
    • The combining form used for most -inen derivatives (including basically all nouns) before other words in a compound: the final -nen is replaced with -s-:
      pohjoinenpohjois-
    • For -inen words where the root is of Latin or Greek origin, the -s- too is often dropped.
      nominaalinennominaali-
  • When appended to verbs ending in -taa, -tää, the verb stem ending in -te- is used.
    kerrostaakerrosteinen
  • Should not be confused with the diminutive suffix -nen in the standard language. The two suffixes are however etymologically identical and hence the distinction may not be observed in some dialects.
    • Colloquially and dialectally, -inen may lose its -i-. In the most common variants of colloquial Finnish, the -i- is elided if it is unstressed and immediately preceded by a vowel that is not e and is in the same syllable as -i- (i.e. part of a -Vi- diphthong).
  • -hinen was originally a distinct suffix, but has become confused with -inen, and most speakers do not recognize them as separate suffixes.

Declension edit

Inflection of -inen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
nominative -inen -iset
genitive -isen -isten
-isien
partitive -ista -isia
illative -iseen -isiin
singular plural
nominative -inen -iset
accusative nom. -inen -iset
gen. -isen
genitive -isen -isten
-isien
partitive -ista -isia
inessive -isessa -isissa
elative -isesta -isista
illative -iseen -isiin
adessive -isella -isilla
ablative -iselta -isilta
allative -iselle -isille
essive -isena -isina
translative -iseksi -isiksi
abessive -isetta -isitta
instructive -isin
comitative -isine
Possessive forms of -inen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -iseni -iseni
accusative nom. -iseni -iseni
gen. -iseni
genitive -iseni -isteni
-isieni
partitive -istani -isiani
inessive -isessani -isissani
elative -isestani -isistani
illative -iseeni -isiini
adessive -isellani -isillani
ablative -iseltani -isiltani
allative -iselleni -isilleni
essive -isenani -isinani
translative -isekseni -isikseni
abessive -isettani -isittani
instructive
comitative -isineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -isesi -isesi
accusative nom. -isesi -isesi
gen. -isesi
genitive -isesi -istesi
-isiesi
partitive -istasi -isiasi
inessive -isessasi -isissasi
elative -isestasi -isistasi
illative -iseesi -isiisi
adessive -isellasi -isillasi
ablative -iseltasi -isiltasi
allative -isellesi -isillesi
essive -isenasi -isinasi
translative -iseksesi -isiksesi
abessive -isettasi -isittasi
instructive
comitative -isinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -isemme -isemme
accusative nom. -isemme -isemme
gen. -isemme
genitive -isemme -istemme
-isiemme
partitive -istamme -isiamme
inessive -isessamme -isissamme
elative -isestamme -isistamme
illative -iseemme -isiimme
adessive -isellamme -isillamme
ablative -iseltamme -isiltamme
allative -isellemme -isillemme
essive -isenamme -isinamme
translative -iseksemme -isiksemme
abessive -isettamme -isittamme
instructive
comitative -isinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -isenne -isenne
accusative nom. -isenne -isenne
gen. -isenne
genitive -isenne -istenne
-isienne
partitive -istanne -isianne
inessive -isessanne -isissanne
elative -isestanne -isistanne
illative -iseenne -isiinne
adessive -isellanne -isillanne
ablative -iseltanne -isiltanne
allative -isellenne -isillenne
essive -isenanne -isinanne
translative -iseksenne -isiksenne
abessive -isettanne -isittanne
instructive
comitative -isinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -isensa -isensa
accusative nom. -isensa -isensa
gen. -isensa
genitive -isensa -istensa
-isiensa
partitive -istaan
-istansa
-isiaan
-isiansa
inessive -isessaan
-isessansa
-isissaan
-isissansa
elative -isestaan
-isestansa
-isistaan
-isistansa
illative -iseensa -isiinsa
adessive -isellaan
-isellansa
-isillaan
-isillansa
ablative -iseltaan
-iseltansa
-isiltaan
-isiltansa
allative -iselleen
-isellensa
-isilleen
-isillensa
essive -isenaan
-isenansa
-isinaan
-isinansa
translative -isekseen
-iseksensa
-isikseen
-isiksensa
abessive -isettaan
-isettansa
-isittaan
-isittansa
instructive
comitative -isineen
-isinensa
Inflection of -inen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
nominative -inen -iset
genitive -isen -isten
-isien
partitive -istä -isiä
illative -iseen -isiin
singular plural
nominative -inen -iset
accusative nom. -inen -iset
gen. -isen
genitive -isen -isten
-isien
partitive -istä -isiä
inessive -isessä -isissä
elative -isestä -isistä
illative -iseen -isiin
adessive -isellä -isillä
ablative -iseltä -isiltä
allative -iselle -isille
essive -isenä -isinä
translative -iseksi -isiksi
abessive -isettä -isittä
instructive -isin
comitative -isine
Possessive forms of -inen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -iseni -iseni
accusative nom. -iseni -iseni
gen. -iseni
genitive -iseni -isteni
-isieni
partitive -istäni -isiäni
inessive -isessäni -isissäni
elative -isestäni -isistäni
illative -iseeni -isiini
adessive -iselläni -isilläni
ablative -iseltäni -isiltäni
allative -iselleni -isilleni
essive -isenäni -isinäni
translative -isekseni -isikseni
abessive -isettäni -isittäni
instructive
comitative -isineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -isesi -isesi
accusative nom. -isesi -isesi
gen. -isesi
genitive -isesi -istesi
-isiesi
partitive -istäsi -isiäsi
inessive -isessäsi -isissäsi
elative -isestäsi -isistäsi
illative -iseesi -isiisi
adessive -iselläsi -isilläsi
ablative -iseltäsi -isiltäsi
allative -isellesi -isillesi
essive -isenäsi -isinäsi
translative -iseksesi -isiksesi
abessive -isettäsi -isittäsi
instructive
comitative -isinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -isemme -isemme
accusative nom. -isemme -isemme
gen. -isemme
genitive -isemme -istemme
-isiemme
partitive -istämme -isiämme
inessive -isessämme -isissämme
elative -isestämme -isistämme
illative -iseemme -isiimme
adessive -isellämme -isillämme
ablative -iseltämme -isiltämme
allative -isellemme -isillemme
essive -isenämme -isinämme
translative -iseksemme -isiksemme
abessive -isettämme -isittämme
instructive
comitative -isinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -isenne -isenne
accusative nom. -isenne -isenne
gen. -isenne
genitive -isenne -istenne
-isienne
partitive -istänne -isiänne
inessive -isessänne -isissänne
elative -isestänne -isistänne
illative -iseenne -isiinne
adessive -isellänne -isillänne
ablative -iseltänne -isiltänne
allative -isellenne -isillenne
essive -isenänne -isinänne
translative -iseksenne -isiksenne
abessive -isettänne -isittänne
instructive
comitative -isinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -isensä -isensä
accusative nom. -isensä -isensä
gen. -isensä
genitive -isensä -istensä
-isiensä
partitive -istään
-istänsä
-isiään
-isiänsä
inessive -isessään
-isessänsä
-isissään
-isissänsä
elative -isestään
-isestänsä
-isistään
-isistänsä
illative -iseensä -isiinsä
adessive -isellään
-isellänsä
-isillään
-isillänsä
ablative -iseltään
-iseltänsä
-isiltään
-isiltänsä
allative -iselleen
-isellensä
-isilleen
-isillensä
essive -isenään
-isenänsä
-isinään
-isinänsä
translative -isekseen
-iseksensä
-isikseen
-isiksensä
abessive -isettään
-isettänsä
-isittään
-isittänsä
instructive
comitative -isineen
-isinensä

Derived terms edit

suffixes

Anagrams edit