From Middle English -ine, from Old French -ine, from Latin -īnus, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos. More at -en.
- (chiefly non-productive) Of or pertaining to.
- Used to form demonyms.
- (chemistry) Used to form names of chemical substances, especially basic (alkaline) substances, alkaloidal substances, or halogen elements.
- (non-productive) Used to form feminine nouns.
- hero + -ine → heroine
- speaker + -ine → speakerine
- (non-productive) Used to form female given names or names of titles.
- Clement + -ine → Clementine
- landgrave + -ine → landgravine
- Commercial materials
While multiple pronunciations are given above for this suffix, they are not freely interchangeable; instead, each word taking the suffix often only takes one or two of the suffix's possible pronunciations. For example, feminine is almost always pronounced with /-ɪn/, while marine is almost always pronounced with /-iːn/. However, more technical terms (such as iodine, which can take any of the suffix's three possible pronunciations) may not have an established pronunciation, though in feminine names (Maxine) and chemical use (theobromine), the pronunciation /-iːn/ is the most frequent, while in other technical formations (bovine) /-aɪn/ is common.
- (feminine affix): he-
Variant of -en.
- Found in the plural forms of a small number of English words. Not productive.
- “-ine”, in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, →ISBN.
- “-ine”, in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
From the same source as -ne (noun-forming suffix) (seen in murene, etc.), with contamination from -in (instrumental suffix) in both form and meaning.
- Forms diminutive forms of nouns, particularly for objects or tools.
-ine f (plural -ines)
- -ine; forms chemical substances
- forms diminutives
- female equivalent of -in; forms female agent nouns
- pèler(in) (“pilgrim”) + -ine → pèlerine (“female pilgrim”)
- assass(in) (“assassin”) + -ine → assassine (“female assassin”)
-ine f pl
From Proto-Finnic *-inen. Cognates include Ingrian -in and Finnish -nen.
- Used to form diminutive nouns; -ie