Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ḱís

This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European

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Etymology

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Presumedly a compound *ḱ(e)- +‎ *ís, or nominalized from the particle as *ḱí +‎ *-s by analogy to *(h₁)ís (from *h₁é?) and *kʷís (from *kʷ-?).

Pronoun

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*ḱís

  1. this (here)

Inflection

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This pronoun needs an inflection-table template.

Alternative forms

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  • *ḱéys (full-grade) ?
  • *ḱí (particle) ?

Reconstruction notes

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An innovative pronoun which could have formed independently in some branches, though it appears archaic given its presence in Anatolian. Like *só, it widely came to be used as a determiner in descendant languages; it also commonly became a bound morpheme in prefixal or suffixal position (more at *ḱe).

Derived terms

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  • *ḱíteros[1]
  • *ḱitm̥mós[1]
    • Proto-Italic: *kitəmos

Descendants

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “cis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 115–116:PIt. *ki ‘here, by’, *ki-tero-; PIE *ḱi ‘this, here’
  2. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “sot”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 399
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “sonte”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 399
  4. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “sivjet”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 397
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) “kā- / kū- / ki-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 425–427:PIE *ḱo-, *ḱi-
  6. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*hi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 225