This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*ḱi- ~ *ḱe- ~ *ḱo- or *-ḱe

  1. Deictic particle, here
  2. Post-positional demonstrative particle, this

Usage notesEdit

The particle in Proto-Indo-European was indeclinable. Some daughter languages, particularly Balto-Slavic, Germanic and Armenian added pronominal inflection later, as also occurred with particles *de, *h₂ew, and *gʰe.


  • Proto-Italic: *-ke, *ke-

Derived termsEdit

  • *ḱinh₂?
    • Proto-Celtic: *kina
      • Proto-Brythonic: *ken
        • Breton: ken (as, so)
      • Old Irish: cen (without)
  • *ḱíteros (contrastive form)
  • *ḱis (innovative i-stem pronoun) (+ *ís)
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (ki)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *śis
      • Lithuanian: šìs
      • Latvian: šis
      • Old Prussian: sis, schis (i.e. šis, with sch due to German orthography)
      • Proto-Slavic: *sь
    • Proto-Germanic: *hiz
    • Proto-Italic: *kis
  • *ḱos (innovative o-stem pronoun)
    • Old Armenian: *սո- (*so-)
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (ka)
    • Proto-Celtic: *koi (from the locative singular)
  • (possibly) *ḱom
  • *ḱi-h₂eh₃mr-
  • *h₁é-ḱey-h₁(e)nos (formed with the augment *h₁é and pronoun *h₁enos)
  • *ḱye-sd-