English

edit

Particle

edit

tu

  1. Pronunciation spelling of to, representing African-American Vernacular English.

Afar

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

 f 

  1. thing

Declension

edit
Declension of
absolutive
predicative
subjective
genitive
Postpositioned forms
l-case túl
k-case túk
t-case tút
h-case túh

Synonyms

edit

References

edit
  • E. M. Parker, R. J. Hayward (1985) “tu”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[2], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

Ainu

edit
Ainu cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : tu
    Ordinal : tu ikinne

Pronunciation

edit

Numeral

edit

tu (Kana spelling トゥ)

  1. two

Albanian

edit

Etymology

edit

Unknown.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. may

Aromanian

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)
edit
See also
edit

Etymology 2

edit

Compare tru.

Preposition

edit

tu

  1. in
  2. into
Synonyms
edit

Asturian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin .

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

Atong (India)

edit

Etymology

edit

From English two.

Pronunciation

edit

Numeral

edit

tu (Bengali script তু)

  1. two

Synonyms

edit

References

edit

Bambara

edit

Noun

edit

tu

  1. forest; thicket

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to spit (out)

Batuley

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Indonesian tua.

Adjective

edit

tu

  1. old

References

edit

Big Nambas

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. give
    Patu pai ani!
    Give him a yam!.

References

edit

Bislama

edit
Bislama cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : tu

Etymology 1

edit

From English two.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. two

Etymology 2

edit

From English too.

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. too

Borôro

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to go

Breton

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Brythonic *tʉβ, from Proto-Celtic *toibos, whence also Old Irish tóeb and Irish taobh. Cognate with Welsh tu, Cornish tu.

Noun

edit

tu m

  1. side

Catalan

edit

Etymology

edit

From Old Catalan tu, from Latin .

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular); thou
  2. one (singular, impersonal)

Declension

edit

See also

edit

References

edit
  • “tu” in Diccionari català-valencià-balear, Antoni Maria Alcover and Francesc de Borja Moll, 1962.

Chilcotin

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit
  • Eung-Do Cook (2013) A Tsilhqút'ín Grammar

Chipewyan

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan [Term?]; cognate with Hän chuu, Ahtna tuu, Deg Xinag te, Navajo , Gwich'in chųų, etc.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit
  • Eung-Do Cook (2004) A grammar of Dëne Sųłiné (Chipewyan), page 350

Coatecas Altas Zapotec

edit

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. one

References

edit

Cornish

edit

Adjective

edit

tu

  1. Hard mutation of du.
  2. Mixed mutation of du.

Czech

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

Inherited from Old Czech tu, from Proto-Slavic *tu.

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. (informal or dialectal) here
    Synonyms: zde, tady

Etymology 2

edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. feminine accusative singular of ten

Further reading

edit
  • tu in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • tu in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • tu in Internetová jazyková příručka

Drung

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tawŋ.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. thousand

References

edit
  • Ross Perlin (2019) A Grammar of Trung[3], Santa Barbara: University of California

Noun

edit

tu (plural tuwo)

  1. gun

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to build
  2. to close
  3. to crush
  4. to grind
  5. to meet
  6. to untie

Fala

edit

Determiner

edit

tu f sg

  1. (Lagarteiru) Apocopic form of túa (your)

Usage notes

edit
  • Used in Lagarteiru before a feminine singular noun as part of a noun phrase.

See also

edit

References

edit
  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[4], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

Fanagalo

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from English two.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. two

Fijian

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to stand
  2. to be (only in situations regarding posture or position)

French

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Old French tu, from Latin , from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Cognates with the exact same usage are the Italian tu, as well as du in German or ты in Russian.

Pronoun

edit

tu (second person informal singular, plural vous, object te, emphatic toi, possessive determiner ton)

  1. you (singular); thou
Usage notes
edit
  • When more pronouns are included in the same sentence, it is considered somewhat impolite to say the pronoun moi first, etiquette says it must be the last one, and toi must be said after a third person:
    • Rose, toi et moi irons là-bas., “Rose, you and I will go there.”
  • "Tu" is used to address one person in an informal situation. Older people tend to exclusively use it with familiar people, and do not use it with unfamiliar adults unless invited to; but younger people use this pronoun much more, using it together in any informal situation, even if they don't know each other. Using "vous" in this context will be seen as old-fashioned and distant.
  • "Tu" is not typically used in formal settings such as business meetings and never in court, regardless of the relationship between the speaker and the listener.
  • Using "vous" when "tu" would be more appropriate will come across as rigid and awkward; however, using "tu" when "vous" would be more appropriate could come over as deliberate disrespect. For this reason, as a rule of thumb, it is advised to use "vous" if in doubt, as it is "all-encompassing".
  • Children are always addressed using "tu" – vous would come over as comical. In elementary, middle, and high schools, teachers address students using "tu", but students address teachers using vous*. In higher education usage of vous becomes more common in both directions.
  • In formal written communication to any adult, use vous. Not doing so may come over as unprofessional at best, deliberately disrespectful at worst.

*However, depending on the region or type of school, other norms may be more used in place. For example, in Quebec (not the rest of Canada), it is more common for students to use "tu" with their teachers.[1]

As a final note: These come as natural to a person who grew up in a French-speaking country, but not necessarily for outsiders. If you are obviously a foreigner, people will normally be forgiving of such mistakes.

Inflection
edit
  • Nominative: tu
  • Emphatic: toi
  • Oblique: te
  • t’ (proclitic form, colloquial)
Derived terms
edit
edit
  • vous (plural form and polite singular form)

References

edit
  1. ^ Brad (2015 May 16) “The use of “VOUS” versus “TU” — in CANADA – Post 2 of 2 (#269)”, in Quebec Culture Blog, retrieved 2023-06-25:This student / teacher trend of “tutoiement” does not really apply in Canadian provinces outside of Québec.

Etymology 2

edit

Participle

edit

tu (feminine tue, masculine plural tus, feminine plural tues)

  1. past participle of taire

Etymology 3

edit

From t-il.

Particle

edit

tu

  1. (Quebec, informal) question marker
    C’est-tu possible ?Is it possible?

Further reading

edit

Anagrams

edit

Friulian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you

See also

edit

Gaulish

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Celtic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun

edit

(plural suīs)

  1. you (singular); thou

Inflection

edit
  • Nominative: tū
  • Accusative: ti/te
  • Dative: toi

References

edit
  • Václav Blažek (2008) “Gaulish Language”, in Sborník prací filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity / Studia minora facultatis philosophicae universitatis brunensis[5], page 59

German

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. singular imperative of tun

Iban

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Determiner

edit

tu

  1. this (what is being indicated)

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. this

See also

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from English thou, French tu, German du, Italian tu, Spanish , Russian ты (ty), all ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ with +‎ -u.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (second person singular)

  1. (informal, familiar) you (singular), thou
    Synonym: (formal) vu

Derived terms

edit

See also

edit

Interlingua

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin and common Romance tu.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (second person singular)

  1. you (singular); thou

Inflection

edit
subject tu
object te
reflexive te
possessive tu, tue

Determiner

edit

tu

  1. (possessive) your

Italian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈtu/*
  • (most parts of Latium) IPA(key): /ˈtu/°
  • Rhymes: -u
  • Hyphenation:

Pronoun

edit

tu (second person singular)

  1. you (singular); thou

Usage notes

edit
  • Italian being a pro-drop language, subject pronouns are mostly omitted, both in the written and spoken language, as the inflected verb is conjugated by person. An example would be: Mangi una mela, which is much more common than Tu mangi una mela, where the subject can be inferred from the inflected form mangi ; similarly È carina instead of Lei è carina. The explicit usage of personal pronouns may sound redundant to a native speaker, except when it is used in order to emphasize the subject. (Tu mangi una mela could be interpreted as You are eating an apple and I am not)..
  • The second-person pronoun in particular can sound confidential and, in some cases, even impolite.

See also

edit

Further reading

edit

Jamaican Creole

edit

Etymology

edit

Derived from English to.

Pronunciation

edit

IPA(key): /tu/

Preposition

edit

tu

  1. to
    • 2012, Di Jamiekan Nyuu Testiment, Edinburgh: DJB, published 2012, →ISBN, 3 Jan 1:1:
      Da leta ya a kom fram mi, di elda — tu mi speshal fren, Gaiyos. Mi fren, mi riili riili lov yu.
      This letter comes from the elder to Gaius, my dear friend, whom I love in the truth.

Further reading

edit
  • tu at majstro.com

Japanese

edit

Romanization

edit

tu

  1. The katakana syllable トゥ (tu) in Hepburn-like romanization.

Kalasha

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (2nd-person personal pronoun)

See also

edit

Kalo Finnish Romani

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

References

edit
  • tu” in Finnish Romani-English Dictionary, ROMLEX – the Romani Lexicon Project, 2000.

Kashubian

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *tu.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈtu/
  • Rhymes: -u
  • Syllabification: tu

Adverb

edit

tu (not comparable)

  1. here (at this place)
    Synonym: tuwò
    Coordinate term: tam

Further reading

edit
  • Stefan Ramułt (1893) “tu”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego (in Kashubian), page 216
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) “tu”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[6]
  • tu”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Khumi Chin

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin [Term?], from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tu. Cognates include Burmese တူ (tu) and Chinese (chuí).

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

tu

  1. hammer

References

edit
  • K. E. Herr (2011) The phonological interpretation of minor syllables, applied to Lemi Chin[7], Payap University, page 48

Ladino

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (Latin spelling)

  1. (informal) you (singular)

See also

edit

Adjective

edit

tu (Latin spelling)

  1. your

Latgalian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *tū, Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognates include Latvian tu and Lithuanian tu.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): [ˈtu]
  • Hyphenation: tu

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. thou, you (singular)
  2. (in reported speech) he, she (that is addressed)

Declension

edit

See also

edit

References

edit
  • A. Andronov, L. Leikuma (2008) Latgalīšu-Latvīšu-Krīvu sarunu vuordineica, Lvava, →ISBN, page 10
  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 35

Latin

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ or *tū.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

(second person singular, possessive adjective tuus)

  1. you (singular); thou
    tuī pudet.
    I am ashamed of you.

Usage notes

edit

When used in the plural genitive, vestrī is used when it is the object of an action, especially when used with a gerund or gerundive. When used in such a construction, the gerund or gerundive takes on the masculine genitive singular. Vestrum is used as a partitive genitive, used in constructions such as (one of you).

Declension

edit
Number Singular Plural
Person First Second Reflexive third Third First Second Reflexive third Third
Case / Gender Masc./ Fem./Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc./ Fem./Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nominative egō̆ is ea id nōs vōs
eae ea
Genitive meī tuī suī eius nostrī
nostrum
vestrī
vestrum
suī eōrum eārum eōrum
Dative mihī̆ tibī̆ sibi nōbīs vōbīs sibi eīs
Accusative
sēsē
eum eam id nōs vōs
sēsē
eōs eās ea
Ablative
sēsē
nōbīs vōbīs
sēsē
eīs
Vocative egō nōs vōs
  • Plautus sometimes has sg. gen. tis.
  • Tēd is an early form of .

Quotations

edit

Derived terms

edit

Descendants

edit

See also

edit

References

edit
  • "tu", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • "tu", in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers

Latvian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *tū, Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. The Latvian tevis comes from *tevens, with an -en-increased form showing an additional s by analogy with other genitive plurals. The dative form was originally closer to Old Prussian tebbei; the current form tev has a v due to influence from other declension forms, and the ending was reduced. The accusative tevi comes from *teven, with n by analogy to the accusative form of other words. The locative tevī was formed by analogy with i-stem nouns.[1]

Pronunciation

edit
  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Pronoun

edit

tu (personal, 2nd person singular)

  1. (informal in the singular) you; (dated) thou; second person pronoun, referring to the addressee
    vai tu nāksi man līdzi?are you coming with me?
    pieder tautai, tad tauta piederēs tev!belong to the people, and then the people will belong to you!
    būt uz tu ar kāduto be on intimate terms (lit. to be on thou) with someone
  2. (in the expression “ak tu...”) used to strengthen the meaning of a word or expression
    "ak tu to skaļo gaiļa rīkli!" māte priecājas"oh you loud rooster throat!" mother said happily
    ak tu mūžs! cūka izlauzusies no aizgalda!ah (you) life! the pig escaped from the pen!

Usage notes

edit

The dative form tevim is used only optionally, with prepositions.

Declension

edit
edit

See also

edit


References

edit
  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992) “tu”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Lithuanian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *tuˀ (you), from Proto-Indo-European *tuH. The oblique stem tav- has been generalized from the Proto-Indo-European genitive *téwe. For a discussion of the case endings, see àš (I).

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

  1. you (singular)

Declension

edit

Derived terms

edit

See also

edit

Lower Sorbian

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Determiner

edit

tu

  1. accusative feminine singular of ten

Lower Tanana

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit
  • James Kari (1991) Lower Tanana Athabaskan Listening and Writing Exercises

Malay

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

Shortened form of itu, from Proto-Malayic *(i)tu(ʔ), from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *(i-)tu, from Proto-Austronesian *(i-)Cu.

Pronunciation

edit

Determiner

edit

tu

  1. (colloquial) that (what is being indicated)

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. (colloquial) that (that thing)

Mandarin

edit

Romanization

edit

tu

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes

edit
  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Masurian

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Old Polish tu.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈtu/
  • Rhymes: -u
  • Syllabification: tu

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. here

Mezquital Otomi

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Proto-Otomi *dų, from Proto-Otomian [Term?], from Proto-Oto-Pamean *tõ, from Proto-Oto-Manguean *ti(n).

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu (intransitive)

  1. die

Etymology 2

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. contain
  2. exist

Etymology 3

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. owe

Middle English

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. Alternative form of þou (thou)

Mirandese

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (the second-person singular pronoun)

Neapolitan

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin .

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (second-person singular nominative pronoun)

References

edit
  • AIS: Sprach- und Sachatlas Italiens und der Südschweiz [Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Italy and Southern Switzerland] – map 1653: “voglio che tu finisca” – on navigais-web.pd.istc.cnr.it

Nigerian Pidgin

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From English too.

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. too
  2. very

Etymology 2

edit

From English two.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. two

North Frisian

edit

Preposition

edit

tu

  1. (Mooring) to
    • 1867, Kleine Mittheilungen. Zur Sammlung der Sagen, Märchen und Lieder, der Sitten und Gebräuche der Herzogthümer Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg. Nachträge, herausgegeben von Dr. Handelmann in Jahrbücher für die Landeskunde der Herzogthümer Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg herausgegeben von der S. H. L. Gesellschaft für vaterländische Geschichte. Band IX., p. 126 (Von der Insel Amrum. Mitgetheilt von Chr. Johansen)
      Gung am tu Sam
      Am an Tram;
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Northern Kurdish

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Iranian *tuHám, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *túH, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit
Central Kurdish تۆ (to)
Southern Kurdish ت (ti)

tu (second person singular)

  1. you (singular); thou
edit

See also

edit

See also

edit

Norwegian Nynorsk

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Preposition

edit

tu

  1. (dialectal, Trøndelag, Eastern Norway) Nonstandard form of ut or (out from, out of).

Occitan

edit

Etymology

edit

From Old Occitan tu, from Latin .

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

Old Czech

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *tu.

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. here (at this place)
    Synonyms: tuto, tuž, tuže
    Coordinate term: tam

Descendants

edit

Further reading

edit

Old English

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Germanic *twō, neuter of *twai.

Pronunciation

edit

Numeral

edit

  1. neuter nominative/accusative of tweġen

Old Galician-Portuguese

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. thou, you (singular second person pronoun)

Descendants

edit
  • Fala: tu
  • Galician: tu, ti
  • Portuguese: tu

Old Irish

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. Alternative spelling of

Mutation

edit
Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
tu thu tu
pronounced with /d(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Polish

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *tu. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. here (at this place)
    Synonym: tuta
  2. here, hither (to this place)
  3. then (at that time)
  4. here (in this situation)

Descendants

edit
  • Masurian: tu
  • Polish: tu

References

edit

Old Swedish

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. Alternative form of þū

Phalura

edit

Etymology

edit

From Sanskrit तुवम् (tuvam, thou).

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (personal, Perso-Arabic spelling توۡ)

  1. you (2sg nom subject or direct object)

References

edit
  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) “tu”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Polish

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Old Polish tu.

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. here (at this place)
    Synonym: tutaj
    Coordinate term: tam
  2. here; hither (to this place)
    Synonym: tutaj
    Coordinate term: tam
  3. here; now (at this time)
    Synonym: tutaj

Particle

edit

tu

  1. (colloquial, telephony) used by the speaker to introduce themselves on the telephone; speaking
    Synonyms: tutaj, z tej strony
    Tu Janek!Janek speaking!
  2. used by the speaker to indicate they are thinking
  3. (colloquial) expressive particle, usually of anger
  4. (colloquial) particle of uncertainty of success on the speaker's part

Trivia

edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), tu is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 1-2 times in scientific texts, 42 times in news, 113 times in essays, 169 times in fiction, and 353 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 779 times, making it the 57th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References

edit
  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “tu”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 2, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 614

Further reading

edit
  • tu in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • tu in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • TU”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 30.03.2020
  • TU”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 06.09.2008
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “tu”, in Słownik języka polskiego[9]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “tu”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[10]
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1919), “tu”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 7, Warsaw, page 162

Portuguese

edit

Pronunciation

edit

  • Rhymes: -u
  • Hyphenation: tu

Etymology 1

edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese tu, from Latin (you), from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. (informal in Portugal, literary, archaic or regional in Brazil) you; thou (singular second person pronoun)
    Synonyms: (Brazil, formal) o senhor, (formal in Portugal, neutral in Brazil) você, (formal, archaic) vossa mercê, (formal, archaic) vosmecê, (formal, obsolete) vossemecê
  2. (Brazil, colloquial, proscribed) second-person singular prepositional pronoun
    Ela gosta de tu.She's into you.
Usage notes
edit
  • Tu has fallen out of use in some regions of Brazil, including most of the Southeast and the Centre-West, where "você" has taken its place. It is still very commonly used in various regions of the country though, such as most of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, parts of Paraná, Rio de Janeiro city and most of the Northeast and North regions. It should be noted that in Rio de Janeiro the pronoun is frequently employed interchangeably with você. Despite the media's preference for "você", the usage of "tu" seems to have been gaining ground throughout the last few decades in Rio (see [11], a linguistic research on the topic in Portuguese), being most frequent among younger speakers.
  • According to grammars, tu should always take second person singular verbs, as is the case in Portugal and some parts of Brazil. However, in most Brazilian dialects which employ tu, it now takes third person singular verbs, like você.

See also

edit
Portuguese personal pronouns (edit)
Number Person Nominative
(subject)
Accusative
(direct object)
Dative
(indirect object)
Prepositional Prepositional
with com
Non-declining
m f m f m and f m f m f m f
Singular First eu me mim comigo
Second tu te ti contigo você
o senhor a senhora
Third ele ela o
(lo, no)
a
(la, na)
lhe ele ela com ele com ela o mesmo a mesma
se si consigo
Plural First nós nos nós connosco (Portugal)
conosco (Brazil)
a gente
Second vós vos vós convosco, com vós vocês
os senhores as senhoras
Third eles elas os
(los, nos)
as
(las, nas)
lhes eles elas com eles com elas os mesmos as mesmas
se si consigo
Indefinite se si consigo

Etymology 2

edit

Interjection

edit

tu

  1. (onomatopoeia) the sound produced by a telephone after one of the callers hangs up

Romani

edit

Etymology

edit

From Sanskrit त्वम् (tvam), from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

See also

edit

Romanian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular), thou
    Synonyms: (semi-polite form) dumneata, (polite form) dumneavoastră

Declension

edit

See also

edit

Sassarese

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin , from Proto-Italic *tū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)
    Synonym: (formal, now rare) vosthè
edit

See also

edit

References

edit
  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes

Savi

edit

Etymology

edit

From Sanskrit त्वम् (tvam).

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you; second-person singular and plural personal pronoun

References

edit
  • Nina Knobloch (2020) A grammar sketch of Sauji: An Indo-Aryan language of Afghanistan[12], Stockholm University

Scottish Gaelic

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (emphatic tusa)

  1. Form of thu (thou, you) used after verb forms ending in -n, -s or -dh.

See also

edit

Serbo-Croatian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Slavic *tu.

Adverb

edit

(Cyrillic spelling ту̑)

  1. here (in this place)
    Tu nikad nismo bili.We have never been here.
  2. (proximal) here, over here (in the indicated place nearby)
    Eno ih tu!Here they are!
  3. over here (to, towards this place)
    Dođi tu!Come over here!

Synonyms

edit

See also

edit

Sicilian

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin .

Pronunciation

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu (second person singular)

  1. you (informal); thou

Inflection

edit
nominative tu
prepositional tia
object, reflexive ti

Silesian

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Old Polish tu.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈtu/
  • Rhymes: -u
  • Syllabification: tu

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. here (at this place)
    Synonyms: sam, tukej, samtukej
    Coordinate terms: (regional) hań, (Cieszyń) hanej, (Cieszyń) han, tam

Further reading

edit
  • tu in silling.org

Sinte Romani

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

References

edit
  • tu” in Sinte Romani-English Dictionary, ROMLEX – the Romani Lexicon Project, 2000.

Slovene

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

  1. here, in this place

Synonyms

edit

Further reading

edit
  • tu”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • tu”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

South Slavey

edit

Alternative forms

edit
  • (Jean Marie River) ti

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ. Cognates include Navajo and Chipewyan tuu.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): [tʰù(ʔ)]
  • Hyphenation: tu

Noun

edit

tu (stem -tu-)

  1. water

Inflection

edit

Derived terms

edit

References

edit
  • Keren Rice (1989) A Grammar of Slave, Berlin, West Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN, page 90

Spanish

edit

Etymology

edit

From Latin tuus, from Proto-Indo-European *towos.

Pronunciation

edit

Determiner

edit

tu sg (second person singular possessive of singular, of plural tus)

  1. (before the noun) Apocopic form of tuyo, your
    Synonym: (parts of Central and South America) su

Usage notes

edit
  • The forms tu and tus are only used before and within the noun phrase of the modified noun. In other positions, a form of tuyo is used instead:
Son tus libros.They are your books.
Son los libros tuyos.They are your books. (literally, “They are the books of yours.”)

Besides being a pronoun, because tu occurs in a noun phrase and expresses reference, it also grammatically classifies as a determiner (specifically a possessive/genitive determiner).

edit

See also

edit

Further reading

edit

Sranan Tongo

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From English two.

Number

edit

tu

  1. two

Etymology 2

edit

From English too.

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. too, also, as well
    Synonym: owktu

Sudovian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *tūˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Compare Lithuanian , Latvian tu, Old Prussian tu, tou.[1][2]

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. (second-person singular) you, thou

References

edit
  1. ^ Zigmas Zinkevičius (1985) “Lenkų-jotvingių žodynėlis? [A Polish-Yotvingian dictionary?]”, in Baltistica, volume 21, number 1 (in Lithuanian), Vilnius: VU, →DOI, page 80:tu ‘tu, l. ty’ 2.
  2. ^ ” in Hock et al., Altlitauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch 2.0 (online, 2020–): “nar. prn. tu du”.

Swahili

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. only

Swedish

edit

Etymology

edit

From Old Norse tvau, neuter nominative/accusative of tveir.

Pronunciation

edit

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. (archaic, in the neuter) two
    Synonym: två

Usage notes

edit
  • tu was the old neuter of två. Thus, one would say "ett hus" (one house), "tu hus" (two houses). The equivalent for the number three was try or tri, which is likewise archaic.
edit

Further reading

edit

Anagrams

edit

Tanacross

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit
  • Jeff Leer, Proto-Athabaskan verb stem variation (1979), page 83

Tausug

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *tuqu.

Adjective

edit

tu

  1. right (not left)

Noun

edit

tu

  1. right hand

Etymology 2

edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *təlu.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. three

Etymology 3

edit

From Proto-Austronesian *tuduq.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. a drop

Verb

edit

tu (used in the form magtu)

  1. to drip

Tày

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Tai *tuːᴬ. Cognate with Thai ตู (dtuu), Northern Thai ᨲᩪ, Lao ຕູ (), ᦎᦴ (ṫuu), Tai Dam ꪔꪴ, Shan တူ (tǔu), Tai Nüa ᥖᥧ (tu), Ahom 𑜄𑜥 (), Zhuang dou.

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

tu (, )

  1. door

References

edit
  • Lục Văn Pảo, Hoàng Tuấn Nam (2003) Hoàng Triều Ân, editor, Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày [A Dictionary of (chữ) Nôm Tày]‎[13] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội
  • Hoàng Văn Ma, Lục Văn Pảo, Hoàng Chí (2006) Từ điển Tày-Nùng-Việt [Tay-Nung-Vietnamese dictionary] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Từ điển Bách khoa Hà Nội
  • Lương Bèn (2011) Từ điển Tày-Việt [Tay-Vietnamese dictionary]‎[14][15] (in Vietnamese), Thái Nguyên: Nhà Xuất bản Đại học Thái Nguyên

Tejalapan Zapotec

edit

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. one

References

edit

Timbe

edit

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit

Tocharian A

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Tocharian [Term?], from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Tocharian B tuwe.

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you, thou

Tok Pisin

edit
This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. This language is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.
Tok Pisin numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: tu

Etymology 1

edit

From English two.

Numeral

edit

tu

  1. two
Usage notes
edit

Used when counting; see also tupela.

Coordinate terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit

From English too.

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. too; also; as well
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Port Moresby: Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Jenesis 1:15:
      God i mekim kamap tupela bikpela lait. Bikpela em san bilong givim lait long de, na liklik em mun bilong givim lait long nait. Na God i mekim kamap ol sta tu.
      →New International Version translation
    • 1995, John Verhaar, Toward a reference grammar of Tok Pisin: an experiment in corpus linguistics[16], →ISBN, page 433:
      Mekim olsem pinis, orait tupela i planim taro na banana, na kumu, painap, kon, tomato, na kaukau tu.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Tsuut'ina

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ. Cognate with Navajo , Dogrib ti, Gwich'in chųų

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

  1. water

References

edit

Upper Kuskokwim

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *tuˑ.

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit
  • Raymond L. Collins, Betty Petruska, Dinak'i (our Words): Upper Kuskokwim Athabaskan Junior Dictionary (1979)

Vietnamese

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Verb

edit

tu

  1. (intransitive) to isolate oneself from other people to follow rules in a philosophy or religion
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit

Verb

edit

tu

  1. (transitive) to drink directly from a bottle by holding bottle mouth in one's mouth

Volapük

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from English too.

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

tu

  1. (degree) too, excessively.

Derived terms

edit

Welsh

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Brythonic *tʉβ, from Proto-Celtic *toibos, whence also Old Irish tóeb and Irish taobh. Cognate with Breton tu, Cornish tu.

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

tu m (uncountable)

  1. side

Derived terms

edit

Preposition

edit

tu

  1. beside, next to

Mutation

edit
Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
tu du nhu thu
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading

edit
  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “tu”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Welsh Romani

edit

Pronoun

edit

tu

  1. you (singular)

References

edit
  • tu” in Welsh Romani-English Dictionary, ROMLEX – the Romani Lexicon Project, 2000.

White Hmong

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Proto-Hmong-Mien *tɛŋH (to snap).[1]

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to snap, break apart
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit
This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Not mentioned at all by Ratliff. Probably native Hmongic; perhaps distantly related to Old Chinese (OC *diːn, *diːns, *tin, *tins, “to fill”)?”

Verb

edit

tu

  1. to look after, care for, prepare
  2. to clean, clear

References

edit
  • Heimbach, Ernest E. (1979) White Hmong — English Dictionary[17], SEAP Publications, →ISBN, pages 324-5.
  1. ^ Ratliff, Martha (2010) Hmong-Mien language history (Studies in Language Change; 8), Camberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics, →ISBN, page 283.

Yale

edit

Noun

edit

tu

  1. water

References

edit