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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/éǵh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

ReconstructionEdit

The presence of the laryngeal is confirmed by the -h- in Sanskrit ahám. Instead of the unknown medial laryngeal *-H-, *-h₂- is often reconstructed here, but there is no secure evidence that would prove such assumption.

Three forms can be reconstructed formally for the nominative singular, using the comparative method:

  • *éǵ (Hittite ūg, Old Lithuanian , Slavic ja, Avestan azə)
  • *eǵHóm (Sanskrit ahám, Avestan azə̄m, OCS azъ, Homeric Greek ἐγών (egṓn))
  • *eǵóH (Latin egō, Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Venetic ego)

There seem to be no grounds for assuming an initial *h₁ in the nominative singular (although it is not impossible) or a final *-H in the form *éǵ. The form *éǵ is obviously the most archaic one, with *eǵHóm and *eǵóh₂ being younger, dialectal variants. The sandhi form of *éǵ - *éḱ, with a final devoiced plosive, is attested in Baltic (Old Prussian as, es) and apparently in the Hittite variant [script needed] (ú-uk).

PronounEdit

*éǵ(h₂) or *eǵHóm or *eǵóh₂

  1. I (first-person pronoun)

DeclensionEdit

Andrew Sihler's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *eǵoH *weh₁ *we-i
accusative *m-mé (> *mé) ~ *me *n̥h₁-wé ~ *nō̆h₁ *n̥smé ~ *nō̆s
genitive *mé-me ~ *mos (adj.) ? *n̥sóm ~ *nō̆s
ablative **mm-ét (> *mét) ? *n̥sm-ét
dative *mébʰi ~ *mey, *moy ? *n̥sm-éy ~ *nō̆s
Notes
  • Oblique pl. *n̥s- possibly continues earlier **m̥s- (same element of sg. oblique stem with pl. s). This n was made common to the whole paradigm, with even enclitic *nos for *mos, but the verb endings *-me(dʰh₂), *-mos(dʰh₂) were not disturbed.[1]
  • Dat. *mégʰi for *mébʰi is attested in Italic and Indic, but not in Iranian, as 𐬨𐬀𐬌𐬠𐬫𐬁 (maibyā). Also Sanskrit मह्यम् (máhyam) may be from original -bʰ-, as this sometimes becomes Indic -h- (even more here by dissimilation from initial m-).[2]
Donald Ringe's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *éǵ(h₂), *eǵHóm, *eǵóh₂ *wé *wéy
accusative *m̥(m)é ~ *me *n̥h₃mé ~ *noh₃ *n̥smé ~ *nos
genitive *méme ~ *moy ? ? ~ *nos
dative *méǵʰye ~ *moy ? ? ~ *nos
Alwin Kloekhorst's reconstruction
Proto-Nuclear-Indo-European singular plural
nominative *h₁eǵH *wey
accusative *h₁me(ge) ~ *mē (?) *n̥s ~ *nōs (?)
genitive *h₁mene ~ *moy ?
dative *h₁meǵʰi ~ *moy ?
oblique *h₁me- *n̥s- ~ *nos
Outer-Anatolian IE singular plural
nominative *h₁eǵH *wey
oblique *h₁men-/*h₁mn *n̥s-
enclitic *moy *nos
Proto-Indo-European singular plural
nominative *h₁eǵH ?
accusative *h₁mn- ?
oblique *h₁mn- ?
Robert Beekes' reconstruction
singular plural
nominative *h₁eǵ(Ho, -Hom) *wey
accusative *h₁mé ~ *h₁me *n̥smé ~ *nōs
genitive *h₁méne ~ *h₁moy *n̥s(er)o- ~ *nos
ablative *h₁med *n̥smed
dative *h₁méǵʰyo ~ *h₁moy *n̥smey ~ *n̥s
locative *h₁móy *n̥smi
instrumental *h₁móy ?
poss. adj. *h₁mós *n̥sós
Frederik Kortlandt's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *h₁eg- *weh₁- *we-
accusative *h₁me *n̥h₁we *n̥sme
genitive *h₁mene *noh₁ *nos
ablative *h₁med *n̥h₁wed *n̥smed
dative *h₁megʰi *n̥h₁ewbʰi *n̥smey
locative *h₁moy *n̥h₁wi *n̥smi
poss. adj. *h₁mos - *n̥sos
Michiel de Vaan's reconstruction
singular plural
nominative *h₁eǵ *wey(s)
accusative *h₁mé ~ h₁me *nōs
genitive-locative *h₁moy *nos/*nes
ablative *h₁méd ?
dative *h₁mégʰyo ?
poss. adj. *h₁mos *ns-tero-s?

Derived termsEdit

  • *h₁mós
  • *memos (from gen. *méme, with loss of second m)?, *mewos (contaminated by *tewos, *sewos)?, *meyos (from dat. *mey)?

DescendantsEdit

  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: u (< *udh < *)
      • Albanian: unë (< u + -) (attest. 1462, Skanderbeg's counselor)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ես (es)
  • Anatolian: *ʔúǵ
  • Balto-Slavic: *eź, *aź[3]
  • Germanic: *ek, *ik, *wīz (see for further descendants)
  • Hellenic
  • Indo-Iranian: *aĵʰám (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: *egō, *nōs, *nosteros
    • Faliscan: [script needed] (eqo), [script needed] (eko), [script needed] (eco)
    • Latin: ego, nōs, noster
    • South Picene: [script needed] (ekú)
    • (Possibly) Venetic: [script needed] (ego)
  • Tocharian:

Coordinate termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 374
  2. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 378
  3. ^ Kapović, Mate (2006) Reconstruction of Balto-Slavic personal pronouns with emphasis on accentuation[1] (PhD dissertation), Zadar, Croatia: University of Zadar, page 159