Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/b-ka-(n/m/ŋ)

Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-TibetanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *b-kɑ-n (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (Matisoff, STEDT); *b-ka-n (Matisoff, 2003; Mortensen, 2012); *ka (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987; LaPolla, 1987); *ka (*B) (Coblin, 1986); *kɑ (Chou, 1972)

Derivative: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kak (difficult, hard).

Compare Proto-Tai *Ĉ.qɤmᴬ (bitter) (Thai ขม (kǒm), Lao ຂົມ (khom)); also compare: Thai ขื่น (kʉ̀ʉn), Lao ຂື່ນ (khư̄n, bitter, astringent, ascerbic).

AdjectiveEdit

*b-ka-(n/m/ŋ)

  1. bitter
  2. bile
  3. liver

DescendantsEdit

  • Old Chinese: /*kʰˤaʔ/ (B-S), /*kʰaːʔ/ (ZS) ("bitter; a bitter plant"); /*kʰˤa-s/ (B-S, unlisted), /*kʰaːs/ (ZS) ("difficult, hardship"); /*s.kˤar/ (B-S); /*kaːn/ (ZS) ("liver")
    • Middle Chinese: (kʰuoX, kʰuoH/), (kɑn)

         Japanese:   (, ​ku)
            Korean:   (, go)
            Vietnamese:  khổ ()

    •    Vietnamese:  khó (hard, difficult; delicate)

         Japanese:   (かん, ​kan)
            Korean:   (, gan)
            Vietnamese:  can ()

    •    Vietnamese:  gan (liver)

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /kʰu²¹⁴/), (gān, /kan⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ཁ་བ (kha ba, bitter), དཀ་བ (dka ba, difficult)
  • Naic:
    • Naish:
      • Naxi: ka (bitter)
  • Nungish:
    • Rawang: ka (bitter)
    • Trung/Drung/Dulong: ka (bitter)
  • Lolo-Burmese
    • Burmish
    • Loloish
      • Northern Loloish
        • Yi (Liangshan): (ke, bitter)
      • Central Loloish
        • Lisu (Northern): ꓘꓪꓽ (kʰwà, bitter, too salty)
        • Lolopo: kar (bitter)
  • Karen: *khaᴮ (Luangthongkum, 2013)

See alsoEdit

  • *m-sin (liver, heart, bile, bitter)
  • *m-ka (mouth, opening, door)
  • *ka (word, speech, language)
  • *tsa (salt)