U+809D, 肝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-809D

[U+809C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+809E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 130, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月一十 (BMJ), four-corner 71240, composition(GJKV) or ⿰(HT))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 974, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1425, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2044, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+809D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn): semantic (flesh) + phonetic (OC *kaːn) – a body part.

EtymologyEdit

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (bitter; salty; bile; liver), in which case it would be related to (OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs, “bitter”); also compare Proto-Bodo-Garo *bi-ka (liver), whence Bodo (India) [script needed] (bi-ka, liver), Garo bika (liver).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kal ~ *s-gal (lower back; kidney), whence Tibetan མཁལ་མ (mkhal ma, kidney), Mizo kal (kidney), Chepang गल्‌ (kidney), Burmese ခါး (hka:, waist).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • koaⁿ - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gon1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.kˁa[r]/
    English liver

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. liver (Classifier: ; )
      [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Wǒ bù chī dǔ yě bù chī gān. [Pinyin]
      I don't eat tripe or liver.
      身體大部分膽固醇消化食物 [MSC, trad.]
      身体大部分胆固醇消化食物 [MSC, simp.]
      Shēntǐ de dàbùfēn dǎngùchún shì zài gān hé cháng nèi yóu xiāohuà de shíwù zhì chéng de. [Pinyin]
      Most of the body's cholesterol is made in the liver and intestine from digested food.
    2. (figuratively) mind; thoughts
    3. (video games, neologism) to grind; to repeat a task day and night, which may exhaust the liver, in order to achieve a specific goal; grindy
      遊戲吸引實在 [MSC, trad.]
      游戏吸引实在 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè yóuxì hěn xīyǐn rén, dàn wǒ shízài gān bù dòng le. Tā tài gān le. [Pinyin]
      This game is attractive, but I really can't grind anymore. It's too grindy.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きも
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kimo. Cognate with Okinawan (ちむ, chimu).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (きも) (kimo

    1. the liver
      • 794, Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki
        心腎肝脯 心人情也 腎音神 訓牟良斗 肝音干 訓岐毛
        (please add an English translation of this quote)
    2. innards
    3. (figuratively) important part

    ReferencesEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɑn).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. liver
    2. (figuratively) essential thing; important thing
    3. (figuratively) courage; spirit

    NounEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. liver
    2. (obsolete, figuratively) heart; spirit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɑn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kan) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (in 肝氣 and 肝腸):
    • (liver):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠(ː)n]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (gan gan))

    1. Hanja form? of (liver).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: can, gan

    1. Hán tự form of can (liver).
    2. Nôm form of gan (liver).