U+809D, 肝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-809D

[U+809C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+809E]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 130, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月一十 (BMJ), four-corner 71240, composition (GJKV) or (HT))

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 974, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1425, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2044, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+809D

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kaːn): semantic (flesh) + phonetic (OC *kaːn) – a body part.

Etymology edit

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (bitter; salty; bile; liver), in which case it would be related to (OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs, “bitter”); also compare Proto-Bodo-Garo *bi-ka (liver), whence Bodo (India) [script needed] (bi-ka, liver), Garo bika (liver).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kal ~ *s-gal (lower back; kidney), whence Tibetan མཁལ་མ (mkhal ma, kidney), Mizo kal (kidney), Chepang गल्‌ (kidney), Burmese ခါး (hka:, waist).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • koaⁿ - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter kan
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gon1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.kˁa[r]/
    English liver

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    Definitions edit

    1. liver (Classifier: ; )
      [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Wǒ bù chī dǔ yě bù chī gān. [Pinyin]
      I don't eat tripe or liver.
      身體大部分膽固醇消化食物 [MSC, trad.]
      身体大部分胆固醇消化食物 [MSC, simp.]
      Shēntǐ de dàbùfēn dǎngùchún shì zài gān hé cháng nèi yóu xiāohuà de shíwù zhì chéng de. [Pinyin]
      Most of the body's cholesterol is made in the liver and intestine from digested food.
    2. (figurative) mind; thoughts
    3. (video games, neologism) to grind; to repeat a task day and night, which may exhaust the liver, in order to achieve a specific goal
      遊戲吸引實在 [MSC, trad.]
      游戏吸引实在 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè yóuxì hěn xīyǐn rén, dàn wǒ shízài gān bù dòng le. Tā tài gān le. [Pinyin]
      This game is attractive, but I really can't grind anymore. It's too grindy.
    4. (video games, neologism) grindy

    Compounds edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    きも
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kimo. Cognate with Okinawan (ちむ, chimu).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (きも) (kimo

    1. the liver
    2. innards
    3. (figuratively) important part

    References edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kan).

    Pronunciation edit

    Affix edit

    (かん) (kan

    1. liver
    2. (figuratively) essential thing; important thing
    3. (figuratively) courage; spirit

    Noun edit

    (かん) (kan

    1. liver
    2. (obsolete, figuratively) heart; spirit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kan). Recorded as Middle Korean (kan) (Yale: kan) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Pronunciation edit

    • (in 肝氣 and 肝腸):
    • (liver):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠(ː)n]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (gan gan))

    1. Hanja form? of (liver).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    ちむ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kimo.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ちむ) (chimu

    1. the liver
    2. heart; spirit

    Derived terms edit

    References edit


    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: can, gan

    1. chữ Hán form of can (liver).
    2. Nôm form of gan (liver).