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U+809D, 肝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-809D

[U+809C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+809E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 130, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月一十 (BMJ), four-corner 71240, composition(GJKV) or ⿰(HT))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 974, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1425, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2044, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+809D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*krads, *krads, *ked, *kad
*kaːn
竿 *kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ, *kaːns, *ɡaːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns, *ɡraːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kʰaːn
*kʰaːn, *kʰaːns, *kreːn, *kan
*kʰaːnʔ, *kʰaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns, *ɦŋaːns, *ŋ̊ʰraːn
*ŋaːns, *hŋaːn, *ŋaːd
*ŋɡaːns
*qʰaːn, *ɢaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *qʰaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *ɡaːns
*qʰaːnʔ
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns, *kʰraːn
*ɡaːns, *ɡraːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡʷranʔ
*ɡraːns
*kan
*ɡan, *ɡʷad
*qʰan
*qʰan
*qʰaːŋʔ
*ɡʷaːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn): semantic  (flesh) + phonetic  (OC *kaːn) – a body part.

EtymologyEdit

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (bitter; salty; bile; liver), in which case it would be related to (OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs, “bitter”); also compare Proto-Bodo-Garo *bi-ka (liver), whence Bodo (India) [script needed] (bi-ka, liver), Garo bika (liver).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kal ~ *s-gal (lower back; kidney), whence Tibetan མཁལ་མ (mkhal ma, kidney), Mizo kal (kidney), Chepang गल्‌ (kidney), Burmese ခါး (hka:, waist).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • koaⁿ - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.kˁa[r]/
    English liver

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. liver (Classifier: ; )
      [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Wǒ bù chī dǔ yě bù chī gān. [Pinyin]
      I don't eat tripe or liver.
      身體大部分膽固醇消化食物 [MSC, trad.]
      身体大部分胆固醇消化食物 [MSC, simp.]
      Shēntǐ de dàbùfēn dǎngùchún shì zài gān hé cháng nèi yóu xiāohuà de shíwù zhì chéng de. [Pinyin]
      Most of the body's cholesterol is made in the liver and intestine from digested food.
    2. (figuratively) mind; thoughts
    3. (video games, neologism) to grind; to repeat a task day and night, which may exhaust the liver, in order to achieve a specific goal; grindy
      遊戲吸引實在 [MSC, trad.]
      游戏吸引实在 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè yóuxì hěn xīyǐn rén, dàn wǒ shízài gān bù dòng le. Tā tài gān le. [Pinyin]
      This game is attractive, but I really can't grind anymore. It's too grindy.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana きも, rōmaji kimo)

    1. the liver
    2. innards
    3. (figuratively) important part

    ReferencesEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gan) (hangeul , revised gan, McCune–Reischauer kan, Yale kan)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (can, gan)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.