English edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɡæn/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æn

Etymology 1 edit

Perhaps connected with Middle English gane, or possibly from Welsh geneu, Cornish ganau (mouth).[1]

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Probably from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénus (cheek, jaw, chin).[2]

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

gan (uncountable)

  1. (obsolete, UK, thieves' cant) Mouth.

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

gan

  1. (archaic) simple past of gin

Etymology 3 edit

Probably a variant of gang, from Middle English gangen, from Old English gangan (to step; walk; go).

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

gan (third-person singular simple present gans, present participle gannin, simple past went or gan, past participle gone)

  1. (Northumbria) To go.
    • 2011, Chris Dockerty, Ramblings of a Geordie:
      The one problem I had here was my broad Geordie accent which the teachers tried their hardest to make me lose. I couldn't understand their problem with it because I could understand myself. Whenever I told them, "Am gannin yem", they would say, "No, Christopher. It's not "am gannin yem", it's "I am going home".

References edit

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 158

Further reading edit

  • Frank Graham (1987) The New Geordie Dictionary, →ISBN
  • Newcastle 1970s, Scott Dobson and Dick Irwin, [2]
  • Todd's Geordie Words and Phrases, George Todd, Newcastle, 1977[3]
  • A List of words and phrases in everyday use by the natives of Hetton-le-Hole in the County of Durham, F.M.T.Palgrave, English Dialect Society vol.74, 1896, [4]
  • Northumberland Words, English Dialect Society, R. Oliver Heslop, 1893–4
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, →ISBN

Anagrams edit

Antillean Creole edit

Etymology edit

From French gant.

Noun edit

gan

  1. glove

Bambara edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gan

  1. to jump

Etymology 2 edit

Adjective edit

gan

  1. hot

Verb edit

gan

  1. (transitive) to heat up

References edit

Dharug edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gan

  1. reptile
  2. (specifically) goanna

References edit

  • Jakelin Troy (1993) The Sydney Language, Canberra, →ISBN, page 53

Dutch Low Saxon edit

Verb edit

gan

  1. Alternative spelling of gaon

Garo edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Bengali গান (gan).

Noun edit

gan

  1. song

Irish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish cen (besides; without), from Proto-Celtic *kina (on this side of); compare Middle Welsh am-gen (otherwise), Breton ken (otherwise).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

gan (plus nominative, triggers no mutation in specific references but lenition in general references)

  1. without
  2. not (in conjunction with a verbal noun)

Usage notes edit

  • In standard written Irish, triggers lenition (except of d, s, t) of unmodified nouns, e.g. gan phingin (without a penny). Does not trigger lenition of modified nouns, e.g. gan pingin ina phóca (without a penny in his pocket). In the meaning ‘not’, does not trigger lenition of either a verbal noun or on the direct object of the verbal noun, e.g. gan ceannach (not to buy), gan pingin a shaothrú (not to earn a penny).
  • Unlike most prepositions, gan takes the nominative case of nouns, as shown by the lack of mutation of consonant-initial masculine singular nouns after the definite article, for example gan an plúr (without the flour), and the presence of t-prothesis of vowel-initial masculine singular nouns after the article, for example gan an t-airgead (without the money).
  • Unlike most prepositions, gan does not form prepositional pronouns, but is instead followed by the disjunctive form of a personal pronoun, for example gan mé (without me), gan sinn (without us), gan é (without him).

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

gan

  1. Rōmaji transcription of がん
  2. Rōmaji transcription of ガン

Jawe edit

Noun edit

gan

  1. tattoo

References edit

  • André-Georges Haudricourt et Françoise Ozanne-Rivière, Dictionnaire thématique des langues de la région de Hienghène (Nouvelle-Calédonie) : pije - fwâi - nemi - jawe, Lacito - Documents, Asie-Austronésie 4, SELAF no. 212, Peeters, 1982

Latvian edit

Conjunction edit

gan

  1. both, and

Usage notes edit

Used in pairs: gan jauna, gan skaista "both young and beautiful"

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

gan

  1. Nonstandard spelling of gān.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of gǎn.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of gàn.

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old English ġeġn.

Preposition edit

gan

  1. Alternative form of gain (against)

Etymology 2 edit

From Old English gān.

Verb edit

gan

  1. (Early Middle English, Northern) Alternative form of gon (to go)

Etymology 3 edit

From Old English gān, ġegān.

Verb edit

gan

  1. Alternative form of gon (gone)

Northern Kurdish edit

Verb edit

gan (present stem -gê-)

  1. to have sexual intercourse with somebody, to fuck somebody

Noun edit

gan ?

  1. having sex, fucking

Nupe edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gan

  1. to exceed; to surpass
    Èmì mi li gan èmì u.My house is cleaner than her house.
    U ge gan kpáátá.It's the best. (literally, “It is good surpassing all”)
    Gànsìkiya ligwa gankò.The truth washes the hands more than soap.

Usage notes edit

Used to construct the comparative and superlative.

Derived terms edit

Old Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *gān.

Verb edit

gān

  1. to go

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Middle Dutch: gâen
    • Dutch: gaan
      • Afrikaans: gaan
      • Javindo: ha, haat
      • Jersey Dutch: xân, xâne
      • Petjo: gaan, haan
    • Limburgish: gaon

Further reading edit

  • gān”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old English edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *gān, from Proto-Germanic *gāną, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰeh₁- (to leave). The verb was defective in Germanic and may only have existed in the present tense.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gān

  1. to go
  2. to walk
    • late 9th century, translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History
      Sē wer meahte unēaðe þurh hine selfne ārīsan oþþe gān.
      The man could barely get up or walk by himself.
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, John 6:66
      Siþþan maniġe his leornungcneohta ċierdon onbæc and lenġ ne ēodon mid him.
      After that, many of his disciples turned back and no longer walked with him.
  3. to enter
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, Matthew 24:38-39
      On þǣm dagum ǣr þǣm flōde wǣron menn etende and drincende, and wīfiġende and ġifte sellende, ōþ þone dæġ þe Nōe on þā earċe ēode, and hīe nysson ǣr sē flōd cōm and nam hīe ealle.
      In the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and they didn't know until the flood came and took them all.

Usage notes edit

  • The expected present participle, gānde, is very rare. Instead gangende is almost always used, from the synonym gangan: Līf nis būtan gangendu sċadu ("Life is but a walking shadow").

Conjugation edit

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

Old Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *gān.

Verb edit

gān

  1. to go

Conjugation edit

Descendants edit

  • Saterland Frisian: geen (simple past, past participle of gunge)
  • West Frisian: gean

Old Saxon edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *gān.

Verb edit

gān

  1. to go

Conjugation edit

Descendants edit

Salar edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Turkmen gan.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Dazhuang, Mengda, Hanbahe, Jiezi, Gaizi, Xunhua, Qinghai, Ili, Yining, Xinjiang) IPA(key): [qɑn]
  • (Chahandusi, Xunhua, Qinghai) IPA(key): [qɑːn]

Noun edit

gan

  1. blood

Derived terms edit

  • gana (to bleed)

References edit

  • Tenishev, Edhem (1976), “gan”, in Stroj salárskovo jazyká [Grammar of Salar], Moscow, page 460
  • Ma, Chengjun; Han, Lianye; Ma, Weisheng (December 2010), “gan”, in 米娜瓦尔 艾比布拉 (Minavar Abibra), editor, 撒维汉词典 (Sāwéihàncídiǎn) [Salar-Uyghur-Chinese dictionary], 1st edition, Beijing, →ISBN, page 218
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2014), “gan”, in 撒拉语366条会话读本 [Salar 366 Conversation Reader], 1st edition, 社会科学文献出版社 (Social Science Literature Press), →ISBN, page 109
  • Yakup, Abdurishid (2002), “gan”, in An Ili Salar Vocabulary: Introduction and a Provisional Salar-English Lexicon, Tokyo: University of Tokyo, →ISBN, page 104

Scots edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Northern Middle English gan, from Old English gān (to go). Past tense supplied by Old English wenden (to wend).

Verb edit

gan (third-person singular simple present gans, present participle gan, simple past went or wett, past participle been)

  1. to go

Scottish Gaelic edit

Pronoun edit

gan

  1. them (direct object)
    A bheil sibh gan creidsinn?Do you believe them?

Usage notes edit

  • Before words beginning with b, f, m or p gam is used instead.

Related terms edit

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

gan

  1. Romanization of 𒃶 (gan)

Ternate edit

Etymology edit

From older gani.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gan

  1. Alternative form of gani (louse)

References edit

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Tok Pisin edit

Etymology edit

From English gun.

Noun edit

gan

  1. gun

Turkmen edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *kiān (blood).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gan (definite accusative gany, plural ganlar)

  1. blood

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • gan” in Enedilim.com
  • gan” in Webonary.org

Vietnamese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Vietic *t-kaːn, from Old Chinese (OC *s.kˤa[r]) (SV: can). Cognate with Chut [Rục] təkaːn¹ ("bold").

Displaced native lòm, now only found in the compounds đỏ lòm and chua lòm.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(classifier ) gan

  1. (anatomy) a liver
  2. (figurative) audacity; gall; balls
    to ganaudacious
    nhát gan / gan thỏ đếchicken

Noun edit

(classifier cây) gan

  1. (botany) Malus doumeri
    Synonym: sơn tra

Adjective edit

gan

  1. hepatic
  2. courageous, brave, tough

Derived terms edit

Derived terms

Anagrams edit

Volapük edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gan (nominative plural gans)

  1. (male or female) goose

Declension edit

Hypernyms edit

Hyponyms edit

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Welsh edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Welsh cant, from Old Welsh cant, from Proto-Celtic *kanta.[1] Cognate with Breton gant and Ancient Greek κατά (katá, against; downwards).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

gan (triggers soft mutation)

  1. (North Wales) used with bod to indicate possession
    Synonym: gyda
    Mae gen i wallt hir.
    I have long hair.
    (literally, “Long hair is with me.”)
  2. by (after a passive construction)
    Cafodd y car ei ddwyn gan ddau llanc.
    The car was stolen by two youths.
  3. by (authorship)
  4. used with verbal noun to indicate an action simultaneous with that of the main verb, while, whilst
    • King, Gareth (1993) Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Grammars), London and New York: Routledge, →ISBN, page 131:
      Aeth o gwmpas y stafell gan ofyn yr un cwestiwn i bawb.
      He went around the room [while] asking everyone the same question.
Usage notes edit

See gan on Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru for more information.

Inflection edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

gan

  1. Soft mutation of can.

Noun edit

gan

  1. Soft mutation of can.

References edit

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “gan”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
can gan nghan chan
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Wolof edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gan (definite form gan gi)

  1. stranger
  2. guest

Yoruba edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gàn

  1. (transitive) to disparage, criticize, belittle
    Synonyms: pẹ̀gàn, ṣáátá, ṣàbùkù, kẹ́gàn
    ọ̀tá mí gànmy enemy disparages me
Usage notes edit
  • gan before a direct object
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gan

  1. (intransitive) to become stiff, to harden
    kankéré ti ganThe concrete has hardened
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gán

  1. (transitive) to stub, to clear (plants or a forest)
    Synonym: ṣán
    àgbẹ́ gán' igbóThe farmer cleared the forest
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gán

  1. to use something very sparingly
    Synonym: sún
    mo ń gán owó lòI am using money very sparingly
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gán

  1. to hit something with a thrown or spun object
    mo ń gán owó lòI am using money very sparingly
Derived terms edit

Etymology 6 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gán

  1. to tack or stich something together
    Synonym: rán
    mo gán etí aṣọ pọ̀I hemmed the edge of the cloth together
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
  • gbá (to stich together the edges of a mat)

Etymology 7 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

gán

  1. to snatch something in the air, especially with one hand
    Synonyms: hán, wọ́n
    mo fọwọ́ gán bọ́ọ̀lù náà pákóI used my hand to snatch the ball swiftly from the air
Derived terms edit