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Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle English bitter, bittre, from Old English bitter, biter (bitter), from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz (bitter), equivalent to bite +‎ -er (adjectival suffix). Compare Saterland Frisian bitter (bitter), West Frisian bitter (bitter), Dutch bitter (bitter), Low German bitter (bitter), German bitter (bitter), Swedish bitter (bitter), Icelandic bitur (bitter).

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance).
    The coffee tasted bitter.
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging.
    • 1999, Neil Gaiman, Stardust, p.31 (Perennial paperback edition)
      It was at the end of February, [] when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors [].
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    They're bitter enemies.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
      He inveighed against the folly of making oneself liable for the debts of others; vented many bitter execrations against the brother; and concluded with wishing something could be done for the unfortunate family.
    • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], OCLC 964384981, Colossians 3:19:
      Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
    I've been bitter ever since that defeat.
Usage notes
  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.
Synonyms
  • (cynical and resentful): jaded
Antonyms
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Sranan Tongo: bita
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
See also

Noun

bitter (countable and uncountable, plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: "All is not gold that glitters,
      "Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Verb

bitter (third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Etymology 2

bit +‎ -er

Noun

bitter (plural bitters)

  1. (computing, informal, in combination) A hardware system whose architecture is based around units of the specified number of bits (binary digits).
    • 1983, Computerworld (volume 17, number 49, page 21)
      However, 16-bitters are far more expensive than the 8-bit variety. And, unfortunately, have only a handful of business applications software packages that really take advantage of them.
    • 1984, Electronic Business (volume 10, page 154)
      The company believes that the 32-bit market will almost equal that of 16-bitters by the end of the decade. Chip maker Zilog Inc., not a major player in the 16-bit arena, is even more bullish about 32-bitters as it readies its own version for market.

Danish

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Inflection
Inflection of bitter
Positive Comparative Superlative
Common singular bitter bitrere bitrest2
Neuter singular bittert bitrere bitrest2
Plural bitre bitrere bitrest2
Definite attributive1 bitre bitrere bitreste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.
Related terms

Noun

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection

Etymology 2

Borrowed from English bitter.

Noun

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer - only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)
  2. bitter, embittered

Inflection

Inflection of bitter
uninflected bitter
inflected bittere
comparative bitterder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial bitter bitterder het bitterst
het bitterste
indefinite m./f. sing. bittere bitterdere bitterste
n. sing. bitter bitterder bitterste
plural bittere bitterdere bitterste
definite bittere bitterdere bitterste
partitive bitters bitterders

Derived terms

Related terms

Descendants

See also

Noun

bitter m or n (plural bitters, diminutive bittertje n)

  1. A type of strong spirits made by steeping (often bitter) herbs in brandy or jenever, traditionally considered a digestive drink.
    Zonder zijn gebruikelijke bittertje om vier uur voelde Opa zich niet lekker.Without his regular shot of bitter at four o'clock, Grandpa wouldn't feel well.

Usage notes

When used in a countable sense (a serving of bitter), the diminutive is the usual form.

Derived terms

Synonyms

Descendants

Further reading


Finnish

Noun

bitter

  1. bitter (type of beer)

Declension

Inflection of bitter (Kotus type 6/paperi, no gradation)
nominative bitter bitterit
genitive bitterin bitterien
bittereiden
bittereitten
partitive bitteriä bittereitä
bitterejä
illative bitteriin bittereihin
singular plural
nominative bitter bitterit
accusative nom. bitter bitterit
gen. bitterin
genitive bitterin bitterien
bittereiden
bittereitten
partitive bitteriä bittereitä
bitterejä
inessive bitterissä bittereissä
elative bitteristä bittereistä
illative bitteriin bittereihin
adessive bitterillä bittereillä
ablative bitteriltä bittereiltä
allative bitterille bittereille
essive bitterinä bittereinä
translative bitteriksi bittereiksi
instructive bitterein
abessive bitterittä bittereittä
comitative bittereineen
Possessive forms of bitter (type paperi)
possessor singular plural
1st person bitterini bitterimme
2nd person bitterisi bitterinne
3rd person bitterinsä

French

Pronunciation

Verb

bitter

  1. (transitive, slang) to understand, usually used in negative form and especially with rien.
    J’ai rien bitté au cours.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Conjugation

Synonyms


German

Etymology

From Middle High German bitter, pitter, from Old High German bittar, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

(tastes) Geschmack; bitter, salzig, sauer, süß (Category: de:Taste)

Declension

Derived terms

Adverb

bitter

  1. bitterly

Synonyms

Further reading


Italian

Etymology

From English bitters.

Noun

bitter m (invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Inflection

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants

Further reading


Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, indefinite superlative bitrest, definite superlative bitreste)

  1. bitter

Derived terms

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrare, indefinite superlative bitrast, definite superlative bitraste)

  1. bitter

References


Old English

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter

Declension


Old High German

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar

References

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter (comparative bittrare, superlative bittrast)

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful

Declension

Inflection of bitter
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular bitter bittrare bittrast
Neuter singular bittert bittrare bittrast
Plural bittra bittrare bittrast
Masculine plural3 bittre bittrare bittrast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 bittre bittrare bittraste
All bittra bittrare bittraste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

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