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U+82E6, 苦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-82E6

[U+82E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+82E7]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿十口 (TJR), four-corner 44604, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1023, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30797
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3186, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+82E6

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːls
*kaːls
*kɯ, *kas
*kaː, *kʰaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːs, *ɡaːʔ
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːʔ, *kaːs
*kaː, *kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːs
*kaːs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs
*qʰaː, *ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ, *ɡaːɡs
*ɡaːʔ
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *kas, *kʰa
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *ɡa
*kas
*kas
*kas
*ɡaːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs): semantic  (grass) + phonetic  (OC *kaːʔ) – bitter (as in bitter plants).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka. Cognate with (OC *kaːn, “liver”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (29)
Final () (23) (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɔX/ /kʰɔH/
Li
Rong
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuX/ /kʰuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤaʔ/
English bitter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4242 4243
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰaːʔ/ /*kʰaːs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bitter
      ―  guā  ―  bittermelon
  2. Alternative name for (, “bitter plant”).
  3. difficult; painful; hard
  4. hardship; suffering
      ―  xīn  ―  laborious; hard; miserable
  5. (dialectal) excessive
  6. to cause someone suffering; to give someone a hard time
  7. to suffer from; to be handicapped by
  8. (obsolete or Min Dong) to worry about; to be concerned about
  9. strenuously; painstakingly
      ―  xiào  ―  to force a smile

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. pain, anguish, suffering, discomfort, hardship, worry
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha, suffering

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (khuX, suffering).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ku)

  1. suffering
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(go) (hangeul , revised go, McCune–Reischauer ko, Yale ko)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

CharacterEdit

ReferencesEdit