Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 廿十口 (TJR), four-corner 44604, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1023, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30797
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3186, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+82E6

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs): semantic  ‎(grass) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kaːʔ) – bitter (as in bitter plants).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka. Cognate with (OC *kaːn, “liver”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (29)
Final () (23) (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɔX/ /kʰɔH/
Li
Rong
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuX/ /kʰuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤaʔ/
English bitter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4242 4243
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰaːʔ/ /*kʰaːs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bitter
      ―  guā  ―  bittermelon
  2. difficult; painful; hard
  3. hardship; suffering
      ―  xīn  ―  laborious; hard; miserable
  4. (dialectal) excessive
  5. to cause someone suffering; to give someone a hard time
  6. to suffer from; to be handicapped by
  7. (obsolete or Min Dong) to worry about; to be concerned about
  8. strenuously; painstakingly
      ―  xiào  ―  to force a smile

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. pain, anguish, suffering, discomfort, hardship, worry
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha, suffering

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(khuX, suffering).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. suffering
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(go) (hangeul , revised go, McCune-Reischauer ko, Yale ko)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

CharacterEdit

ReferencesEdit

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