Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs): semantic  ‎(grass) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kaːʔ) - bitter (as in bitter plants).

Han characterEdit

(radical 140 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 廿十口 (TJR), four-corner 44604, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1023, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30797
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3186, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+82E6

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (29)
Final: (23)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: kǔ
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoX/ /kʰoX/ /kʰɔX/ /kʰoX/ /kʰuX/ /kʰuoX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (29)
Final: (23)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: kù
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoH/ /kʰuoH/ /kʰoH/ /kʰɔH/ /kʰoH/ /kʰuH/ /kʰuoH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ khuX › /*kʰˤaʔ/ bitter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4242 0 /*kʰaːʔ/
4243 0 /*kʰaːs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bitter
    苦瓜 (kǔguā, “bittermelon”)
  2. hardship, suffering
    辛苦 (xīnkǔ, “laborious; hard; miserable”)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. pain, anguish, suffering, discomfort, hardship, worry
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha, suffering

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(khuX, suffering).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. suffering
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(go) (hangeul , revised go, McCune-Reischauer ko, Yale ko)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(khổ, khủ, cỏ, , khó)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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