U+82E6, 苦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-82E6

[U+82E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+82E7]
苦 U+2F996, 苦
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F996
芽
[U+2F995]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 𦬼
[U+2F997]

Translingual

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Stroke order
Mainland China and Japan
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 140, +6 in traditional Chinese, 艸+5 in mainland China and Japanese, 9 strokes in traditional Chinese, 8 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 廿十口 (TJR), four-corner 44604, composition )

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1023, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30797
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3186, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+82E6

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𡿵
𩇵

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs) : semantic (grass) + phonetic (OC *kaːʔ) – bitter (as in bitter plants).

Etymology 1

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka (bitter; salty); compare Tibetan (kha, bitter), Tangut 𗎖 (*khie¹, bitter) (STEDT; Jacques, 2014). Within Chinese, cognate with (OC *kaːn, “liver”).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (29)
Final () (23) (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter khuX khuH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɔX/ /kʰɔH/
Li
Rong
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuX/ /kʰuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fu2 fu3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˁaʔ/
English bitter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4242 4243
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰaːʔ/ /*kʰaːs/

Definitions

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  1. bitter
      ―  guā  ―  bittermelon
  2. Alternative name for (, “bitter plant”).
  3. difficult; painful; hard
  4. hardship; suffering
      ―  xīn  ―  laborious; hard; miserable
  5. (regional) excessive
  6. (transitive) to cause someone suffering; to give someone a hard time
  7. to suffer from; to be handicapped by
  8. (obsolete or Eastern Min) to worry about; to be concerned about
  9. strenuously; painstakingly
      ―  xiào  ―  to force a smile
Synonyms
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Antonyms
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  • (antonym(s) of bitter): (gān), (tián)

Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ku)
  • Korean: (苦) (go)
  • Vietnamese: khổ ()

Compounds

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See also

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Basic tastes in Chinese · 味道 (layout · text)
           
(tián) (suān) (xián) () 鮮味鲜味 (xiānwèi)

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of ()

Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. bitter taste
  2. pain, anguish, suffering, discomfort, hardship, worry
  3. (Buddhism) dukkha, suffering

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (khuX, suffering).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ku

  1. suffering
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 괴로울 (goeroul go))

  1. Hanja form? of (suffering, pain).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Alternative forms

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: khổ
: Nôm readings: cỏ, khó, khủ, khổ,

References

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