Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/divъ

This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic

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Etymology 1

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Noun

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*dȋvъ m[1][2][3][4][5]

  1. admiration, delight, astonishment
    Synonym: *čùdo
  2. that which causes delight; wonder, miracle
    Synonym: *čùdo
Declension
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Derived terms
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verbs
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Descendants
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  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: дивъ (divŭ)
      • Belarusian: див (div) (dialectal)
      • Ukrainian: див (dyv) (rare)
      • Russian: див (div) (archaic or dialectal)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:

Etymology 2

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Unclear. The material is poorly attested:

Usually believed to be derived from *divъ (that which causes delight). Less likely demonized Early Slavic *Divъ (sky god) or *divъ (god) during Slavic-Iranian contacts. The demonization was to come under Iranian influence, where the old Iranian deities were demonized as a result of the introduction of Zoroastrianism (compare Sanskrit देव (deva, god) vs Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬉𐬎𐬎𐬀 (daēuua, demon)).

Noun

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*divъ m (feminine *diva, adjective *divьskъ)[6][5]

  1. some kind of a demon (supernatural being)
Declension
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Descendants
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  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: дивъ (divŭ)
      • Ukrainian: див (dyv) (rare)
      • Russian: див (div) (archaic or dialectal)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:

Further reading

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Etymology 3

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From Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (to be bright) +‎ *-ъ.

Adjective

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*divъ[7]

  1. delightful, astonishing, unusual
Declension
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Derived terms
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nouns
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adjectives
Descendants
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Etymology 4

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Inherited from Proto-Balto-Slavic *deiwas (wild). By surface analysis, Proto-Indo-European *dʰi- +‎ *-vъ. Cognate Latvian dievs (wild).

It was also suggested that the lemma derives from Early Slavic *Divъ (sky god) or *divъ (god), from Proto-Balto-Slavic *deiwás (god).[8] According to that theory, Proto-Slavic *divъ zvě̑rь (wild animal), Latvian dieva zuosis (wild geese), dieva vērši (wild oxen) etc., are similar to Hittite [script needed] (šiunaš ḫuitar, wild animals, literally, godly animals) from 𒅆𒍑 (ši-uš, god).

Adjective

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*divъ[9][10][11][12]

  1. natural, intact, wild
    Synonym: *dikъ
  2. feral, wild (about animals or plants)
    Synonym: *dikъ
    *divъ zvě̑rьwild animal
    *divъ veprьwild boar
    *diva svinьjawild pig
    *diva kozawild goat; roe deer
    *divъ golǫbьwild pigeon
    *diva gǫ̑sьwild goose
    *diva bьčelawild bee
    *divo zelьjewild herb
    *divъ mȅdъforest honey
  3. empty, unpopulated, uncultivated (about land)
    Synonym: *dikъ
  4. (figuratively) savage, fierce, unrestrained, outrageous, barbarous (about people or behaviour)
    Synonym: *dikъ
Declension
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Derived terms
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nouns
verbs
adjectives
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nouns
adjectives
Descendants
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Etymology 5

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Onomatopoeic. Secondarily associated with *diviti. Compare similar Bulgarian джив-джив (dživ-dživ), Macedonian џив-џив (dživ-dživ).

Interjection

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*divъ[13]

  1. (West Slavic) tweet, chirp (sound of a sparrow)
Descendants
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  • West Slavic:

Etymology 6

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Expected reflex of Proto-Balto-Slavic *deiwás (god), from Proto-Indo-European *deywós. Displaced by *bȍgъ during Slavic-Iranian contacts (see there for further information).

Noun

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*dȋvъ m[14]

  1. (religion) god
Inflection
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References

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  1. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 2”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 226
  2. ^ Trubachyov, Oleg, editor (1978), “*divъ”, in Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), numbers 5 (*dělo – *dьržьlь), Moscow: Nauka, page 35
  3. ^ Boryś, Wiesław (2005) “dziw”, in Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego (in Polish), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, →ISBN, page 146
  4. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) “*divъ I”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 108
  5. 5.0 5.1 Snoj, Marko (2016) “diven”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar [Slovenian Etymology Dictionary] (in Slovene), 3rd edition, https://fran.si:iz *divъ̏ (ali *dȋvъ) ‛čudež, čudo, demon’
  6. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 1”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 225
  7. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 3”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 227
  8. ^ Gołąb, Zbigniew (1975) “Linguistic traces of primitive religious Dualism in Slavic”, in Erlich, Victor, editor, For Wiktor Weintraub. Essays in Polish Literature, Language and History Presented on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, Mouton, →ISBN, pages 151-159
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) “*divъ II”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 108
  10. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 4”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 228
  11. ^ Trubachyov, Oleg, editor (1978), “divъ(jь)”, in Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), numbers 5 (*dělo – *dьržьlь), Moscow: Nauka, page 35
  12. ^ Snoj, Marko (2016) “divji”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar [Slovenian Etymology Dictionary] (in Slovene), 3rd edition, https://fran.si:Pslovan. *dívьjь, izpeljano iz *divъ̏ ‛zli duh, demon, čudo’
  13. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 5”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 231
  14. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1979), “divъ 4”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volumes 3 (davьnъ – dobirati sę), Wrocław: Ossolineum, →ISBN, page 231