Etymology 1Edit

From ab- (from, away) +‎ sum (I am)



absum (present infinitive abesse, perfect active āfuī, future participle āfutūrus); irregular conjugation, irregular, no passive, no supine stem except in the future active participle

  1. I am away, I am absent, I am distant


   Conjugation of absum (highly irregular, suppletive, no supine stem except in the future active participle, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present absum abes abest absumus abestis absunt
imperfect aberam aberās aberat aberāmus aberātis aberant
future aberō aberis, abere aberit aberimus aberitis aberunt
perfect āfuī āfuistī āfuit āfuimus āfuistis āfuērunt, āfuēre
pluperfect āfueram āfuerās āfuerat āfuerāmus āfuerātis āfuerant
future perfect āfuerō āfueris āfuerit āfuerimus āfueritis āfuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present absim absīs absit absīmus absītis absint
imperfect abessem, āforem abessēs, āforēs abesset, āforet abessēmus, āforēmus abessētis, āforētis abessent, āforent
perfect āfuerim āfuerīs āfuerit āfuerīmus āfuerītis āfuerint
pluperfect āfuissem āfuissēs āfuisset āfuissēmus āfuissētis āfuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present abes abeste
future abestō abestō abestōte absuntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives abesse āfuisse āfutūrum esse, āfore
participles absēns āfutūrus

Usage notesEdit

  • Regularized perfect and supine forms abfuī, abfutūrus etc. occur in Medieval Latin.



  • Norwegian Bokmål: abessiv

Etymology 2Edit



  1. nominative neuter singular of absus
  2. accusative masculine/neuter singular of absus
  3. vocative neuter singular of absus


  • absum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • absum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • absum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be far from town: longe, procul abesse ab urbe
    • to be not far away: prope (propius, proxime) abesse
    • he has been absent five years: quinque annos or sextum (iam) annum abest
    • to be quite uncivilised: ab omni cultu et humanitate longe abesse (B. G. 1. 1. 3)
    • God forbid: quod abominor! (procul absit!)
    • to be free from blame: abesse a culpa
    • to be almost culpable: prope abesse a culpa