Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From ad- (to) +‎ sum (I am).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

adsum (present infinitive adesse, perfect active adfuī, future participle adfutūrus); irregular conjugation, irregular, no passive, no supine stem except in the future active participle

  1. (with dative) to be present
    Synonym: stō
    Antonyms: dēsum, absum
  2. (with dative) to arrive
    Synonyms: perveniō, adveniō, ēvādō, obeō, teneō, tangō, prehendō
  3. (with dative) to attend
  4. (with dative) to be present with aid or support; to stand by, assist, favor, help, sustain
    Synonyms: adiūtō, iuvō, adiuvō, foveō, assistō, succurrō, sublevō, prōficiō, prōsum
    Antonym: officiō
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 6.652:
      nunc ades ō coeptīs, flāva Minervā, meīs.
      Now be favorably present, oh golden[-haired] Minerva, to [these] undertakings of mine.
      (The imperative active present tense second person singular “ades” summons the muse of poetry, Minerva. Here, the meaning includes both divine “presence” and “assistance”.)
  5. to protect, defend
    Synonyms: prōtegō, dēfendō, custōdiō, vindicō, arceō, tūtor, prohibeō, mūniō, servō, tueor, sustineō, tegō
    Antonyms: obiectō, immineō, īnstō

Conjugation edit

   Conjugation of adsum (highly irregular, suppletive, no supine stem except in the future active participle, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present adsum ades adest adsumus adestis adsunt
imperfect aderam aderās aderat aderāmus aderātis aderant
future aderō aderis,
aderit aderimus aderitis aderunt
perfect adfuī adfuistī adfuit adfuimus adfuistis adfuērunt,
pluperfect adfueram adfuerās adfuerat adfuerāmus adfuerātis adfuerant
future perfect adfuerō adfueris adfuerit adfuerimus adfueritis adfuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present adsim adsīs adsit adsīmus adsītis adsint,
imperfect adessem,
perfect adfuerim adfuerīs adfuerit adfuerīmus adfuerītis adfuerint
pluperfect adfuissem adfuissēs adfuisset adfuissēmus adfuissētis adfuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ades adeste
future adestō adestō adestōte adsuntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives adesse adfuisse adfutūrum esse,
participles adfutūrus


References edit

  • adsum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • adsum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • adsum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be there at a given time: ad tempus adesse
    • to assist, stand by a person: adesse alicui or alicuius rebus (opp. deesse)
    • (1) to be attentive; (2) to keep one's presence of mind: animo adesse
    • to be quite unconcerned: animo adesse (Sull. 11. 33)
    • to be present at divine service (of the people): sacris adesse
    • to take no part in politics: rei publicae deesse (opp. adesse)
    • to issue a proclamation calling on the senators to assemble in full force: edicere, ut senatus frequens adsit (Fam. 11. 6. 2)
    • to appear in court: in iudicium venire, in iudicio adesse