See also: šum and -sum

Contents

EnglishEdit

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English summe, from Old French summe, from Latin summa, feminine of summus ‎(highest).

NounEdit

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. A quantity obtained by addition or aggregation.
    The sum of 3 and 4 is 7.
    • Bible, Numbers i. 2
      Take ye the sum of all the congregation.
  2. (often plural) An arithmetic computation, especially one posed to a student as an exercise (not necessarily limited to addition).
    We're learning about division, and the sums are tricky.
    • Charles Dickens
      a large sheet of paper [] covered with long sums
  3. A quantity of money.
    a tidy sum
    the sum of forty pounds
    • Bible, Acts xxii. 28
      With a great sum obtained I this freedom.
  4. A summary; the principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium.
    This is the sum of all the evidence in the case.
    This is the sum and substance of his objections.
  5. A central idea or point.
  6. The utmost degree.
    • Milton
      Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought / My story to the sum of earthly bliss.
  7. (obsolete) An old English measure of corn equal to the quarter.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Volume 4, page 207:
      The sum is also used for the quarter, and the strike for the bushel.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
See alsoEdit
TranslationsEdit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

VerbEdit

sum ‎(third-person singular simple present sums, present participle summing, simple past and past participle summed)

  1. (transitive) To add together.
    • 2005, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. 250b.
      when you say that stability and change are, it's because you're summing them up together as embraced by it, and taking note of the communion each of them has with being.
  2. (transitive) To give a summary of.
SynonymsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

 Som (currency) on Wikipedia

Wikipedia

From Kazakh сом ‎(som), Kyrgyz сом ‎(som), Uyghur سوم, and Uzbek soʻm, all of which have the core signification “pure”, used in elliptical reference to historical coins of pure gold.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. The basic unit of money in Kyrgyzstan.
  2. The basic unit of money in Uzbekistan.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Eye dialect spelling of some.

PronounEdit

sum

  1. (African American Vernacular) Eye dialect spelling of some.

External linksEdit

AnagramsEdit


FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

sum

  1. like, as
  2. when, as

ParticleEdit

sum ‎(relative particle)

  1. that, who, which

SynonymsEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

sum

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐌿𐌼

IcelandicEdit

AdjectiveEdit

sum

  1. the feminine nominative singular of sumur ‎(some)
  2. the neuter nominative plural of sumur ‎(some)
  3. the neuter accusative plural of sumur ‎(some)
    Ég þekkti sum barnanna.
    I knew some of the children.

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

The present stem is from Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti ‎(I am, I exist). Cognates include Ancient Greek εἰμί ‎(eimí), Sanskrit अस्मि ‎(ásmi), Old English eom (English am).

The perfect stem is from Proto-Italic *fūai, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰúHt ‎(to become, be).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

sum ‎(present infinitive esse, perfect active fuī, future participle futūrus); irregular conjugation

  1. (copulative) I am, exist, have (with dative)
    • Heauton Timorumenos (“The Self-Tormentor”) by Publius Terentius Afer
      Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto.
      I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me.
    • René Descartes
      Cogito, ergo sum.
      I think, therefore I am.
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations (Latin text and English translations here)
      O di immortales, ubinam gentium sumus? Quam rem publicam habemus? In qua urbe vivimus?.
      O ye immortal gods, where on earth are we? What is the government we have? In what city do we live?
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
    Sum sine regno.
    I am without a kingdom.
    Sic sum ut vides.
    Thus I am as you see.
    Dixit duas res ei rubori fuisse.
    He said that two things had abashed him.
    Civis romanus sum.
    I am a Roman citizen.

ConjugationEdit

  • The singular second person future imperative form estō is commonly, though not always, used in preference to the singular present imperative es.
   Conjugation of sum (highly irregular, suppletive, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sum es est sumus estis sunt
imperfect eram erās erat erāmus erātis erant
future erō eris, ere erit erimus eritis erunt
perfect fuī fuistī fuit fuimus fuistis fuērunt, fuēre
pluperfect fueram fuerās fuerat fuerāmus fuerātis fuerant
future perfect fuerō fueris fuerit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sim sīs sit sīmus sītis sint
imperfect essem, forem essēs, forēs esset, foret essēmus, forēmus essētis, forētis essent, forent
perfect fuerim fuerīs fuerit fuerīmus fuerītis fuerint
pluperfect fuissem fuissēs fuisset fuissēmus fuissētis fuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present es este
future estō estō estōte suntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives esse fuisse futūrus esse, fore
participles futūrus

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • sum¹ in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • sum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • 1 sum on pages 1,511–1,512 of Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, quo nemo tum fuit clarior
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimus
    • it is more than twenty years ago: amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) I have not seen you for five years: quinque anni sunt or sextus annus est, cum te non vidi
    • on the day after, which was September 5th: postridie qui fuit dies Non. Sept. (Nonarum Septembrium) (Att. 4. 1. 5)
    • Cato of Utica was a direct descendant of Cato the Censor: Cato Uticensis ortus erat a Catone Censorio
    • Homer lived many years before the foundation of Rome: Homerus fuit multis annis ante Romam conditam
    • I am thirteen years old: tredecim annos natus sum
    • our contemporaries; men of our time: homines qui nunc sunt (opp. qui tunc fuerunt)
    • I dreamed I saw..: in somnis visus (mihi) sum videre
    • this is our natural tendency, our destiny; nature compels us: ita (ea lege, ea condicione) nati sumus
    • my position is considerably improved; my prospects are brighter: res meae meliore loco, in meliore causa sunt
    • how are you getting on: quo loco res tuae sunt?
    • (ambiguous) my circumstances have not altered: eadem est causa mea or in eadem causa sum
    • under such circumstances: quae cum ita sint
    • how came it that...: quid causae fuit cur...?
    • everything depends on you: in te omnia sunt
    • I am on bad terms with a person: sunt or intercedunt mihi cum aliquo inimicitiae
    • I think that..: in hac sum sententia, ut...putem
    • this is more plausible than true: haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt
    • I know very well: non sum ignarus, nescius (not non sum inscius)
    • I am undecided..: incertus sum, quid consilii capiam
    • he had such an extraordinary memory that..: memoria tanta fuit, ut
    • we know from experience: usu rerum (vitae, vitae communis) edocti sumus
    • for a Roman he is decidedly well educated: sunt in illo, ut in homine Romano, multae litterae (De Sen. 4. 12)
    • those ideas have long ago been given up: illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt (Fin. 5. 8. 23)
    • disciples of Plato, Platonists: qui sunt a Platone or a Platonis disciplina; qui profecti sunt a Platone; Platonici
    • the species is subordinate the genus: partes generibus subiectae sunt
    • to determine the nature and constitution of the subject under discussion: constituere, quid et quale sit, de quo disputetur
    • systematic succession, concatenation: continuatio seriesque rerum, ut alia ex alia nexa et omnes inter se aptae colligataeque sint (N. D. 1. 4. 9)
    • to be absolutely ignorant of arithmetic: bis bina quot sint non didicisse
    • I have exhausted all my material: copiam quam potui persecutus sum
    • to detail the whole history of an affair: ordine narrare, quomodo res gesta sit
    • my zeal for a thing has led me too far: studio alicuius rei provectus sum
    • but to return from the digression we have been making: sed ad id, unde digressi sumus, revertamur
    • I said it in jest: haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi
    • what follows has been translated into Latin from Plato's Phaedo: ex Platonis Phaedone haec in latinum conversa sunt
    • these are mere empty phrases: haec verba sunt (Ter. Phorm. 3. 2. 32)
    • (ambiguous) anger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge: iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant or ut u. libido sit or iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc. libidinem
    • the word aemulatio is employed with two meanings, in a good and a bad sense: aemulatio dupliciter dicitur, ut et in laude et in vitio hoc nomen sit
    • the terms, contents of the letter are as follows: litterae in hanc sententiam or his verbis scriptae sunt
    • may heaven's blessing rest on it: quod bonum, faustum, felix, fortunatumque sit! (Div. 1. 45. 102)
    • I felt quite at home in his house: apud eum sic fui tamquam domi meae (Fam. 13. 69)
    • relations are strained between us: in simultate cum aliquo sum
    • to talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation: in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore
    • the rate of interest has gone up from 4 per cent to 8 per cent: fenus ex triente Id. Quint. factum erat bessibus (Att. 4. 15. 7)
    • the corn is not yet ripe: frumenta in agris matura non sunt (B. G. 1. 16. 2)
    • the laws of Solon ordained that..: Solonis legibus sanctum erat, ut or ne
    • all have perished by the sword: omnia strata sunt ferro
    • subjects: qui imperio subiecti sunt
    • not to be prolix: ne longum sit
    • not to be prolix: ne longus, multus sim
    • not to be diffuse on such a well-known subject: ne in re nota et pervulgata multus sim
    • I have a few words to say on this: mihi quaedam dicenda sunt de hac re
    • (ambiguous) putting aside, except: cum discessi, -eris, -eritis ab
    • (ambiguous) God made the world: deus mundum aedificavit, fabricatus est, effecit (not creavit)
    • (ambiguous) God is the Creator of the world: deus est mundi procreator (not creator), aedificator, fabricator, opifex rerum
    • (ambiguous) one has a view over...; one is able to see as far as..: prospectus est ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) the water reaches to the waist: aqua est umbilīco tenus
    • (ambiguous) the atmosphere: aer qui est terrae proximus
    • (ambiguous) the frost set in so severely that..: tanta vis frigoris insecuta est, ut
    • (ambiguous) to be able to bear heat and cold: aestus et frigoris patientem esse
    • (ambiguous) a hill lies to the north: est a septentrionibus collis
    • (ambiguous) to be favourably situated: opportuno loco situm or positum esse
    • (ambiguous) the city is very beautifully situated: urbs situ ad aspectum praeclara est
    • (ambiguous) the town stands on rising ground: oppidum colli impositum est
    • (ambiguous) the town lies at the foot of a mountain: oppidum monti subiectum est
    • (ambiguous) the city is situate on a bay: urbs in sinu sita est
    • (ambiguous) to be contiguous, adjacent to a country: finitimum esse terrae
    • (ambiguous) to have the same boundaries; to be coterminous: continentem esse terrae or cum terra (Fam. 15. 2. 2)
    • (ambiguous) the road is the same length: tantundem viae est
    • (ambiguous) to be separated by an immense interval of space and time: intervallo locorum et temporum disiunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be travelling abroad: peregrinari, peregre esse
    • (ambiguous) to meet some one by chance: obvium or obviam esse, obviam fieri
    • (ambiguous) I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • (ambiguous) nothing is more tiresome to me than..: nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) it is high time that..: tempus maximum est, ut
    • (ambiguous) I have not seen you for five years: quinque anni sunt or sextus annus est, cum te non vidi
    • (ambiguous) the day is already far advanced: multus dies or multa lux est
    • (ambiguous) to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th: hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non. Sept.
    • (ambiguous) what time is it: quota hora est?
    • (ambiguous) it is the third hour (= 9 A.M.: tertia hora est
    • (ambiguous) the foe is at our heels, is upon us: hostis in cervicibus alicuius est
    • (ambiguous) one can see it in his face: in fronte alicuius inscriptum est
    • (ambiguous) to belong to the king's bodyguard: a latere regis esse
    • (ambiguous) to make oneself conspicuous: conspici, conspicuum esse aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be blind: oculis captum esse (vid. sect. IV. 6., note auribus, oculis...)
    • (ambiguous) to cherish as the apple of one's eye: aliquis est mihi in oculis
    • (ambiguous) to prostrate oneself before a person: ad pedes alicuius iacēre, stratum esse (stratum iacēre)
    • (ambiguous) to fail to see what lies before one: quod ante pedes est or positum est, non videre
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with sense: sensibus praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to come within the sphere of the senses: sensibus or sub sensus subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be robust, vigorous: bonis esse viribus
    • (ambiguous) what country do you come from: cuias es
    • (ambiguous) to be alive: in vita esse
    • (ambiguous) the rest of one's life: quod reliquum est vitae
    • (ambiguous) to be of such and such an age: ea aetate, id aetatis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in the prime of life: integra aetate esse
    • (ambiguous) to have become independent, be no longer a minor: sui iuris factum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be advanced in years: aetate provectum esse (not aetate provecta)
    • (ambiguous) to be more advanced in years: longius aetate provectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be infirm through old age: aetate affecta esse
    • (ambiguous) to be worn out by old age: senectute, senio confectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a contemporary of a person: aequalem esse alicuius
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: quot annos natus es?
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: qua aetate es?
    • (ambiguous) to be more than ten years old, to have entered on one's eleventh year: decimum annum excessisse, egressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be not yet twenty: minorem esse viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) to outlive, survive all one's kin: omnium suorum or omnibus suis superstitem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be able to endure hunger and thirst: famis et sitis patientem esse
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy good health: bona (firma, prospera) valetudine esse or uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to be ill, weakly: infirma, aegra valetudine esse or uti
    • (ambiguous) to be seriously ill: gravi morbo affectum esse, conflictari, vexari
    • (ambiguous) to be affected by disease in every limb; to be paralysed: omnibus membris captum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have the gout: ex pedibus laborare, pedibus aegrum esse
    • (ambiguous) he feels better: melius ei factum est
    • (ambiguous) to be overcome by sleep: somno captum, oppressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be sound asleep: sopītum esse
    • (ambiguous) I saw a vision in my dreams: species mihi dormienti oblata est
    • (ambiguous) I'm undone! it's all up with me: perii! actum est de me! (Ter. Ad. 3. 2. 26)
    • (ambiguous) this is the inscription on his tomb..: sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est
    • (ambiguous) here lies..: hic situs est...
    • (ambiguous) that is the way of the world; such is life: haec est rerum humanarum condicio
    • (ambiguous) that is the way of the world; such is life: sic vita hominum est
    • (ambiguous) to find one's circumstances altered for the better (the worse): meliore (deteriore) condicione esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dilemma; in difficulties: in angustiis, difficultatibus, esse or versari
    • (ambiguous) the facts are these; the matter stands thus: res ita est, ita (sic) se habet
    • (ambiguous) the case is exactly similar (entirely different): eadem (longe alia) est huius rei ratio
    • (ambiguous) this is quite another matter: hoc longe aliter, secus est
    • (ambiguous) the matter has gone so far that...; the state of affairs is such that..: res eo or in eum locum deducta est, ut...
    • (ambiguous) my circumstances have not altered: eadem est causa mea or in eadem causa sum
    • (ambiguous) the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa posita est in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa repetenda est ab aliqua re (not quaerenda)
    • (ambiguous) to be of great (no) importance: magni (nullius) momenti esse
    • (ambiguous) to depend upon a thing: positum, situm esse in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be in a person's power: in manu, in potestate alicuius situm, positum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a person's power: penes aliquem esse
    • (ambiguous) the matter is still undecided; it is an open question: res integra est
    • (ambiguous) I have not yet committed myself: res mihi integra est
    • (ambiguous) it is no longer in my power: mihi non est integrum, ut...
    • (ambiguous) the decision of the question rests with you: penes te arbitrium huius rei est
    • (ambiguous) on every occasion; at every opportunity: quotienscunque occasio oblata est; omnibus locis
    • (ambiguous) no opportunity of carrying out an object presents itself: nulla est facultas alicuius rei
    • (ambiguous) Fortune's favourite: is, quem fortuna complexa est
    • (ambiguous) to be abandoned by good luck: a fortuna desertum, derelictum esse
    • (ambiguous) happiness, bliss: beata vita, beate vivere, beatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have to submit to the uncertainties of fortune; to be subject to Fortune's caprice: sub varios incertosque casus subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be exposed to the assaults of fate: fortunae telis propositum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be abandoned to fate: fortunae obiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a victim of the malice of Fortune: ad iniurias fortunae expositum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in danger: in periculo esse or versari
    • (ambiguous) a man's life is at stake, is in very great danger: salus, caput, vita alicuius agitur, periclitatur, in discrimine est or versatur
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: res ad extremum casum perducta est
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: ad extrema perventum est
    • (ambiguous) to be in a position of safety: in tuto esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in the enjoyment of a large fortune: fortunis maximis ornatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to live in poverty, destitution: in egestate esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of use: usui or ex usu esse
    • (ambiguous) to be well-disposed towards..: benevolo animo esse in aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be popular with; to stand well with a person: gratiosum esse alicui or apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be popular with; to stand well with a person: in gratia esse apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to look favourably upon; to support: studiosum esse alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to look favourably upon; to support: propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)
    • (ambiguous) to be hired, suborned: mercede conductum esse
    • (ambiguous) I am on good terms with a person: est or intercedit mihi cum aliquo amicitia
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be very old friends: vetustate amicitiae coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess great authority; to be an influential person: magna auctoritate esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess great authority; to be an influential person: magna auctoritas est in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to have great influence with a person; to have considerable weight: magna auctoritas alicuius est apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) report says; people say: rumor, fama, sermo est or manat
    • (ambiguous) every one says: vulgo dicitur, pervulgatum est
    • (ambiguous) to be in every one's mouth: in ore omnium or omnibus (hominum or hominibus, but only mihi, tibi, etc.) esse
    • (ambiguous) news reached Rome: Romam nuntiatum est, allatum est
    • (ambiguous) to confer distinction on a person; to redound to his credit: gloriae, laudi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be consumed by the fires of ambition: gloriae, laudis cupiditate incensum esse, flagrare
    • (ambiguous) to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bona, mala existimatio est de aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be honoured, esteemed by some one: esse in honore apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) the matter involves much labour and fatigue: res est multi laboris et sudoris
    • (ambiguous) it is worth while: operae pretium est (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) to be involved in many undertakings; to be much occupied, embarrassed, overwhelmed by business-claims: multis negotiis implicatum, districtum, distentum, obrutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged upon a matter: occupatum esse in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged upon a matter: intentum esse alicui rei
    • (ambiguous) it is a great undertaking to..: magnum negotium est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be at leisure: otiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be at leisure: in otio esse or vivere
    • (ambiguous) to be magnanimous, broad-minded: magno animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of sane mind: mentis compotem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be out of one's mind: mente captum esse, mente alienata esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of sound mind: sanae mentis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be deep in thought: in cogitatione defixum esse
    • (ambiguous) it is a matter of conjecture, supposition: aliquid in coniectura positum est
    • (ambiguous) to be averse to truth: a vero aversum esse (Catil. 3. 1. 29)
    • (ambiguous) to be probable: veri simile esse
    • (ambiguous) this much is certain: hoc (not tantum) certum est
    • (ambiguous) I am quite certain on the point: mihi exploratum est, exploratum (certum) habeo
    • (ambiguous) I am persuaded, convinced: mihi persuasum est
    • (ambiguous) to give a person advice: auctorem esse alicui, ut
    • (ambiguous) to be perplexed: consilii inopem esse
    • (ambiguous) I am resolved; it is my intention: in animo habeo or mihi est in animo c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) I am determined: certum (mihi) est
    • (ambiguous) I am firmly resolved: certum deliberatumque est
    • (ambiguous) I intend, propose to..: propositum est mihi c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) my intention is..: consilium est c. Inf. or ut
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: id quod voluit consecutus est
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning of this: quid hoc rei est?
    • (ambiguous) to detain a person: in mora alicui esse
    • (ambiguous) to have a good memory: memorem esse (opp. obliviosum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be forgotten, pass into oblivion: oblivioni esse, dari
    • (ambiguous) to have had practical experience: in rebus atque in usu versatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess experience: usu praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have had no experience of the world: (rerum) imperitum esse
    • (ambiguous) he has had many painful experiences: multa acerba expertus est
    • (ambiguous) to be interested in, have a taste for culture: optimarum artium studio incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have received only a moderate education: a doctrina mediocriter instructum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be well-informed, erudite: multarum rerum cognitione imbutum esse (opp. litterarum or eruditionis expertem esse or [rerum] rudem esse)
    • (ambiguous) to have received a liberal education: optimis studiis or artibus, optimarum artium studiis eruditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have received a superficial education: litteris leviter imbutum or tinctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have attained to a high degree of culture: omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse (Brut. 25. 95)
    • (ambiguous) to be quite uncivilised: omnis cultus et humanitatis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brought up in some one's school: e disciplina alicuius profectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy close intercourse with... (of master and pupil): multum esse cum aliquo (Fam. 16. 21)
    • (ambiguous) to be born for a thing, endowed by nature for it: natum, factum esse ad aliquid (faciendum)
    • (ambiguous) to be gifted, talented (not praeditum esse by itself): bona indole (always in sing.) praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) we expect a great deal from a man of your calibre: magna est exspectatio ingenii tui
    • (ambiguous) to be a philosopher, physician by profession: se philosophum, medicum (esse) profiteri
    • (ambiguous) to set an example: exemplo esse
    • (ambiguous) a thing is deeply impressed on the mind: aliquid in animo haeret, penitus insedit or infixum est
    • (ambiguous) to attend Plato's lectures: audire Platonem, auditorem esse Platonis
    • (ambiguous) to be ignorant of even the elements of logic: dialecticis ne imbutum quidem esse
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus (Acad. 1. 5. 19)
    • (ambiguous) to have been reduced to a system: arte conclusum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be comprised under the term 'fear.: sub metum subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be closely connected with each other: conexum et aptum esse inter se
    • (ambiguous) to be closely connected with a thing: cohaerere, coniunctum esse cum aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be very intimately related: arte (artissime) coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have no coherence, connection: diffusum, dissipatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be confused: confusum, perturbatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul: argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur
    • (ambiguous) a proof of this is that..: argumento huic rei est, quod
    • (ambiguous) we start by presupposing that..: positum est a nobis primum (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) it follows from what we have shown: hoc probato consequens est
    • (ambiguous) to be dogmatic; positive: pertinacem (opp. clementem) esse in disputando
    • (ambiguous) to be at variance with: in controversia (contentione) esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) I have a point to discuss with you: res mihi tecum est
    • (ambiguous) this goes to prove what I say: hoc est a (pro) me
    • (ambiguous) the question is settled, finished: res confecta est
    • (ambiguous) all are unanimous: una et consentiens vox est
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) tradition, history tells us: memoriae traditum est, memoriae (memoria) proditum est (without nobis)
    • (ambiguous) we read in history: apud rerum scriptores scriptum videmus, scriptum est
    • (ambiguous) a twofold tradition prevails on this subject: duplex est memoria de aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be exact in calculating dates: diligentem esse in exquirendis temporibus
    • (ambiguous) he possesses sound judgment in matters of taste: elegantia in illo est
    • (ambiguous) a thing is taken from life: aliquid e vita ductum est
    • (ambiguous) to be a born orator: natum, factum esse ad dicendum
    • (ambiguous) to be a ready, fluent speaker: facilem et expeditum esse ad dicendum (Brut. 48. 180)
    • (ambiguous) to be an inexperienced speaker: rudem, tironem ac rudem (opp. exercitatum) esse in dicendo
    • (ambiguous) to be fluent: disertum esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)
    • (ambiguous) to be a capable, finished speaker: eloquentem esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)
    • (ambiguous) to be considered the foremost orator: oratorum principem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be never at a loss for something to say: solutum et expeditum esse ad dicendum
    • (ambiguous) to have a ready tongue: lingua promptum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have good lungs: bonis lateribus esse
    • (ambiguous) to introduce a person (into a dialogue) discoursing on..: aliquem disputantem facere, inducere, fingere (est aliquid apud aliquem disputans)
    • (ambiguous) to go deeply into a matter, discuss it fully: multum, nimium esse (in aliqua re) (De Or. 2. 4. 17)
    • (ambiguous) the circumstances are described in language worthy of them: rebus ipsis par est oratio
    • (ambiguous) a digression, episode: quod ornandi causa additum est
    • (ambiguous) no sound passed his lips: nulla vox est ab eo audita
    • (ambiguous) I have nothing to write about: non habeo, non est quod scribam
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod (mihi) propositum est
    • (ambiguous) but to return from the digression we have been making: verum ut ad id, unde digressa est oratio, revertamur
    • (ambiguous) the task I have put before myself is..: mihi propositum est c. Inf. (or mihi proposui, ut)
    • (ambiguous) it is a difficult point, disputed question: magna quaestio est (followed by an indirect question)
    • (ambiguous) the question has forced itself on my mind: quaerendum esse mihi visum est
    • (ambiguous) to be humorously inclined: animo prompto esse ad iocandum
    • (ambiguous) to make witty remarks: facetiis uti, facetum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a good temper: iucunde esse (Deiot. 7. 19)
    • (ambiguous) to be silly, without tact: ineptum esse (De Or. 2. 4. 17)
    • (ambiguous) to be pedantic: nimium diligentem esse
    • (ambiguous) the Greek language is a richer one than the Latin: lingua graeca latinā locupletior (copiosior, uberior) est
    • (ambiguous) he has made several mistakes: saepe (crebro, multa) peccavit, erravit, lapsus est
    • (ambiguous) to be united by having a common language: eiusdem linguae societate coniunctum esse cum aliquo (De Or. 3. 59. 223)
    • (ambiguous) to be unable to express one's ideas: orationis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) the expression is not in accordance with Latin usage: aliquid a consuetudine sermonis latini abhorret, alienum est
    • (ambiguous) to be rich in words: verbis abundantem esse, abundare
    • (ambiguous) to derive a word from... (used of an etymologist): verbum ductum esse a...putare
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae est vis huius verbi?
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?
    • (ambiguous) what do we mean by 'virtue': quid est virtus?
    • (ambiguous) anger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge: iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant or ut u. libido sit or iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc. libidinem
    • (ambiguous) this word is neuter: hoc vocabulum generis neutri (not neutrius) est)
    • (ambiguous) it was said long ago that..: vetus (verbum) est (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) as the proverb says: ut est in proverbio
    • (ambiguous) this is a proverb among the Greeks: hoc est Graecis hominibus in proverbio
    • (ambiguous) there exists a book on..: est liber de...
    • (ambiguous) the book treats of friendship: hic liber est de amicitia (not agit) or hoc libro agitur de am.
    • (ambiguous) the book contains something... (not continet aliquid): libro scriptor complexus est aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged on a book: liber mihi est in manibus
    • (ambiguous) the book, speech can easily be obtained: liber, oratio in manibus est
    • (ambiguous) we read in Plato: apud Platonem scriptum videmus, scriptum est or simply est
    • (ambiguous) in Plato's 'Phaedo' we read: in Platonis Phaedone scriptum est
    • (ambiguous) (1) to make frequent mistakes in writing; (2) to be full of mistakes (speaking of a passage): mendosum esse (Verr. 2. 4. 77)
    • (ambiguous) a letter to Atticus: epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa or quae ad A. scripta est
    • (ambiguous) to be so disposed: ita animo affectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be moved, agitated: commotum or concitatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be greatly agitated: commotum perturbatumque esse
    • (ambiguous) what sort of humour are you in: quid tibi animi est?
    • (ambiguous) the pain is very severe: acer morsus doloris est (Tusc. 2. 22. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to be vexed, mortified, anxious: in aegritudine, sollicitudine esse
    • (ambiguous) to be vexed, mortified, anxious: sollicitum esse
    • (ambiguous) something harasses me, makes me anxious: aliquid me sollicitat, me sollicitum habet, mihi sollicitudini est, mihi sollicitudinem affert
    • (ambiguous) to be bowed down, prostrated by grief: aegritudine afflictum, debilitatum esse, iacēre
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy peace of mind: quieto, tranquillo, securo animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be contented: rebus suis, sorte sua contentum esse
    • (ambiguous) I am content to..: satis habeo, satis mihi est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be satisfied with a little: paucis, parvo contentum esse
    • (ambiguous) to suffer affliction: in luctu esse (Sest. 14. 32)
    • (ambiguous) to be in fear: in timore esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) to be completely prostrated by fear: metu fractum et debilitatum, perculsum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brave, courageous: bono animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brave by nature: animo forti esse
    • (ambiguous) to show a brisk and cheerful spirit: alacri et erecto animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be cast down, discouraged, in despair: animo esse humili, demisso (more strongly animo esse fracto, perculso et abiecto) (Att. 3. 2)
    • (ambiguous) to be proud, arrogant by reason of something: inflatum, elatum esse aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be puffed up with pride: insolentia, superbia inflatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be resigned to a thing: (animo) paratum esse ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be ready to endure anything: omnia perpeti paratum esse
    • (ambiguous) to lose one's head, be beside oneself: sui (mentis) compotem non esse
    • (ambiguous) to lose one's head, be beside oneself: non esse apud se (Plaut. Mil. 4. 8. 26)
    • (ambiguous) it's all over with me; I'm a lost man: actum est de me
    • (ambiguous) to hover between hope and fear: inter spem metumque suspensum animi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be absolutely wanting in sympathy: omnis humanitatis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be dear to some one: carum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be dear to some one: carum atque iucundum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with love: amore captum, incensum, inflammatum esse, ardere
    • (ambiguous) to be some one's favourite: in amore et deliciis esse alicui (active in deliciis habere aliquem)
    • (ambiguous) to love and make a bosom friend of a person: aliquem in sinu gestare (aliquis est in sinu alicuius) (Ter. Ad. 4. 5. 75)
    • (ambiguous) somebody, something is never absent from my thoughts: aliquis, aliquid mihi curae or cordi est
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing I am more interested in than..: nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)
    • (ambiguous) to long for a thing, yearn for it: desiderio alicuius rei teneri, affici (more strongly flagrare, incensum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be admired: admirationi esse
    • (ambiguous) some one is the object of much admiration: magna est admiratio alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with admiration: admiratione incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be security for some one: sponsionem facere, sponsorem esse pro aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: invisum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: odio, invidiae esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: in invidia esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: in odio esse apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with a passionate hatred: odio inflammatum, accensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with rage: ira incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with rage: iracundia inflammatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be short-tempered; to be prone to anger: praecipitem in iram esse (Liv. 23. 7)
    • (ambiguous) to be virtuous: virtute praeditum, ornatum esse (opp. vitiis obrutum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to strive to attain virtue: virtutem sequi, virtutis studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be vicious, criminal: vitiis, sceleribus inquinatum, contaminatum, obrutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have a natural propensity to vice: natura proclivem esse ad vitia
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with desire of a thing: cupiditate alicuius rei accensum, inflammatum esse
    • (ambiguous) some one feigns illness: aliquis simulat aegrum or se esse aegrum
    • (ambiguous) to serve as some one's butt: ludibrio esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be exact, punctual in the performance of one's duty: diligentem esse in retinendis officiis
    • (ambiguous) it is a breach of duty to..: contra officium est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be courteous, obliging to some one: officiosum esse in aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to have an inclination for a thing: studere alicui rei, studiosum esse alicuius rei
    • (ambiguous) to have an inclination for a thing: propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid (opp. alienum, aversum esse, abhorrere ab aliqua re)
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with reason: rationis participem (opp. expertem) esse
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with reason: ratione praeditum esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) are you in your right mind: satin (= satisne) sanus es?
    • (ambiguous) to be conscious of no ill deed: nullius culpae sibi conscium esse
    • (ambiguous) to behave with moderation: moderatum, continentem esse
    • (ambiguous) something is contrary to my moral sense, goes against my principles: aliquid abhorret a meis moribus (opp. insitum [atque innatum] est animo or in animo alicuius)
    • (ambiguous) to be consistent: sibi constare, constantem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be inconsistent, changeable: animo mobili esse (Fam. 5. 2. 10)
    • (ambiguous) something is a characteristic of a man: aliquid est proprium alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to be in the lower world: apud inferos esse
    • (ambiguous) we believe in the existence of a God: deum esse credimus
    • (ambiguous) to deny the existence of the gods: deos esse negare
    • (ambiguous) belief in God is part of every one's nature: omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deum
    • (ambiguous) an atheist: qui deum esse negat
    • (ambiguous) to be tinged with superstition: superstitione imbutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be the slave of superstition: superstitione teneri, constrictum esse, obligatum esse
    • (ambiguous) the house threatens to fall in (vid. sect. X. 5, note 'Threaten'...): domus collapsura, corruitura (esse) videtur
    • (ambiguous) the house suddenly fell in ruins: domus subita ruina collapsa est
    • (ambiguous) to be at some one's house: apud aliquem esse
    • (ambiguous) to knock at the door: ostium, fores pulsare
    • (ambiguous) to open, shut the door: ostium, fores aperire, claudere
    • (ambiguous) to bolt the door: fores obserare
    • (ambiguous) to possess means, to be well off: rem or opes habere, bona possidere, in bonis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be economical: diligentem, frugi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a great eater: multi cibi esse, edacem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be the slave of one's appetite: ventri deditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to take only enough food to support life: tantum cibi et potionis adhibere quantum satis est
    • (ambiguous) to be given to drink: vino deditum esse, indulgere
    • (ambiguous) my relations with him are most hospitable: mihi cum illo hospitium est, intercedit
    • (ambiguous) I am always welcome at his house: domus patet, aperta est mihi
    • (ambiguous) to be always in some one's company: assiduum esse cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with a person: usu, familiaritate, consuetudine coniunctum esse cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with a person: est mihi consuetudo, or usus cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) the conversation began with..: sermo ortus est ab aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) the conversation began in this way: hinc sermo ductus est
    • (ambiguous) to be married to some one: nuptam esse cum aliquo or alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be some one's heir: heredem esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) something has been left as a legacy by some one: hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquo
    • (ambiguous) it is my custom: aliquid est meae consuetudinis
    • (ambiguous) it is customary to..: mos (moris) est, ut (Brut. 21. 84)
    • (ambiguous) it is traditional usage: more, usu receptum est
    • (ambiguous) to be bankrupt: non solvendo esse (Phil. 2. 2. 4)
    • (ambiguous) money is outstanding, unpaid: pecunia in nominibus est
    • (ambiguous) the accounts balance: ratio alicuius rei constat (convenit, par est)
    • (ambiguous) money is plentiful at 6 per cent: semissibus magna copia est
    • (ambiguous) to be content with 12 per cent at compound interest: centesimis cum anatocismo contentum esse (Att. 5. 21. 12)
    • (ambiguous) credit has disappeared: fides (de foro) sublata est (Leg. Agr. 2. 3. 8)
    • (ambiguous) credit is low throughout Italy: fides tota Italia est angusta
    • (ambiguous) to be in debt: in aere alieno esse
    • (ambiguous) to be deeply in debt: aere alieno obrutum, demersum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have pressing debts: aere alieno oppressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fond of building: aedificatorem esse (Nep. Att. 13. 1)
    • (ambiguous) there is a bridge over the river: pons est in flumine
    • (ambiguous) to live in the country: in agris esse, habitare
    • (ambiguous) the crop is in the blade: messis in herbis est (Liv. 25. 15)
    • (ambiguous) your crop is still green, i.e. you are still far from your ambition: adhuc tua messis in herba est (proverb.)
    • (ambiguous) corn is dear: annona cara est
    • (ambiguous) to be the chief man in the state: principem civitatis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a friend of the aristocracy: nobilitatis fautorem, studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to occupy a very high position in the state: in altissimo dignitatis gradu collocatum, locatum, positum esse
    • (ambiguous) a law is valid: lex rata est (opp. irrita)
    • (ambiguous) to declare a law valid: legem ratam esse iubere
    • (ambiguous) the law says..: in lege scriptum est, or simply est
    • (ambiguous) a thing is illegal: aliquid contra legem est
    • (ambiguous) to be popular, influential: gratiosum esse (opp. invisum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be a strong partisan: partium studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be torn by faction: partium studiis divisum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a follower of some one: alicuius studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: nullius or neutrius (of two) partis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: in neutris partibus esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: medium esse
    • (ambiguous) to be (very) patriotic: patriae amantem (amantissimum) esse (Att. 9. 22)
    • (ambiguous) to hold revolutionary opinions: novarum rerum cupidum esse
    • (ambiguous) there are whispers of the appointment of a dictator: non nullus odor est dictaturae (Att. 4. 18)
    • (ambiguous) to live in exile: in exsilio esse, exsulem esse
    • (ambiguous) to have unlimited power; to be invested with imperium: cum imperio esse (cf. XVI. 3)
    • (ambiguous) to hold a high office (such as conferred imperium, i.e. consulatus, dictatura, praetura): in imperio esse
    • (ambiguous) to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • (ambiguous) to be convicted by some one's evidence: testibus teneri, convictum esse
    • (ambiguous) the case is still undecided: adhuc sub iudice lis est (Hor. A. P. 77)
    • (ambiguous) to be at fault; to blame; culpable: in culpa esse
    • (ambiguous) some one is to blame in a matter; it is some one's fault: culpa alicuius rei est in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) it is my fault: mea culpa est
    • (ambiguous) to be free from blame: extra culpam esse
    • (ambiguous) to be almost culpable: affinem esse culpae
    • (ambiguous) to retire from service: militia functum, perfunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to retire from service: rude donatum esse (Phil. 2. 29)
    • (ambiguous) to have had no experience in war: rei militaris rudem esse
    • (ambiguous) to hold a high command: cum imperio esse
    • (ambiguous) to obey a person's orders: dicto audientem esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be under arms: in armis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be armed: cum telo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be out of range: extra teli iactum, coniectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to protect the troops in the rear: novissimis praesidio esse
    • (ambiguous) the cohort on guard-duty: cohors, quae in statione est
    • (ambiguous) the issue of the battle is undecided: proelium anceps est
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) a hand-to-hand engagement ensued: tum pes cum pede collatus est (Liv. 28. 2)
    • (ambiguous) swords must now decide the day: res gladiis geri coepta est
    • (ambiguous) to have the advantage in cavalry: equitatu superiorem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a match for the enemy: parem (opp. imparem) esse hosti
    • (ambiguous) there was great slaughter of fugitives: magna caedes hostium fugientium facta est
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with the Roman people: in amicitia populi Romani esse (Liv. 22. 37)
    • (ambiguous) he received from the senate the title of friend: a senatu amicus appellatus est (B. G. 1. 3)
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: sub imperio et dicione alicuius esse
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: subiectum esse, obnoxium esse imperio or dicioni alicuius (not simply alicui)
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: in potestate, in dicione alicuius esse
    • (ambiguous) Asia was made subject to Rome: Asia populi Romani facta est
    • (ambiguous) to ride at anchor: in ancoris esse, stare, consistere
    • (ambiguous) much damage was done by this collision: ex eo navium concursu magnum incommodum est acceptum
    • (ambiguous) in short; to be brief: ne multa, quid plura? sed quid opus est plura?
    • (ambiguous) as I said above: ut supra (opp. infra) diximus, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) it sounds incredible: incredibile dictu est
    • (ambiguous) this is not the place to..: non est huius loci c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) this is not the place to..: non est hic locus, ut...
    • (ambiguous) so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) there is this also to notice: atque etiam hoc animadvertendum est
    • (ambiguous) this passage is obscure: hic (ille) locus obscurus est
    • (ambiguous) putting aside, except: cum discessi, -eris, -eritis ab
    • (ambiguous) it is clear, evident: hoc in promptu est
    • (ambiguous) it is clear, evident: hoc in aperto est
    • (ambiguous) this is as clear as daylight: hoc est luce (sole ipso) clarius
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo perspicuum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: id quod maximum, gravissimum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: quod caput est
    • (ambiguous) what is more important: quod maius est
    • (ambiguous) this shows, proves..: testis est, testatur, declarat
    • (ambiguous) this shows, proves..: documento, indicio est (without demonstr. pron. but cui rei documento, indicio est)
    • (ambiguous) there is something in what you say; you are more or less right: est istuc quidem aliquid
    • (ambiguous) it is so: ita res est
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing strange in that: neque id mirum est or videri debet
    • (ambiguous) good luck to you: macte virtute (esto or te esse iubeo)

LojbanEdit

RafsiEdit

sum

  1. rafsi of sumti.

Norwegian BokmålEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin summa

NounEdit

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summer, definite plural summene)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Hva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the verb summe

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin summa

NounEdit

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summar, definite plural summane)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Kva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the verb summe

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular sumet, indefinite plural sum, definite plural suma)

  1. an act of swimming
    Dei la på sum utover mot holmen.
    They started swimming towards the holm.

Etymology 4Edit

From Old Norse sumr.

Alternative formsEdit

  • som (main form)

PronounEdit

sum m (feminine sum, neuter sumt, plural sume)

  1. some
    Sumt av det er nytt, resten er ved det gamle.
    Some of it is new, the rest is like it used to be.

ReferencesEdit


Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old High German sum, Old Norse sumr

PronounEdit

sum n

  1. some

DescendantsEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old English sum, Old Norse sumr

PronounEdit

sum n

  1. some

DeclensionEdit



PolishEdit

sum (a catfish, Silurus glanis)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *somъ.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

sum m anim

  1. European catfish

DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

sum f pl

  1. genitive plural of suma

ShaboEdit

VerbEdit

sum

  1. say

SloveneEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

súm m inan ‎(genitive súma, nominative plural súmi)

  1. suspicion, mistrust

DeclensionEdit


VurësEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

sum

  1. to drink
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