sum

See also: šum and -sum

EnglishEdit

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Wikipedia

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English summe, from Old French summe, from Latin summa, feminine of summus ‎(highest).

NounEdit

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. A quantity obtained by addition or aggregation.
    The sum of 3 and 4 is 7.
    • Bible, Numbers i. 2
      Take ye the sum of all the congregation.
  2. (often plural) An arithmetic computation, especially one posed to a student as an exercise (not necessarily limited to addition).
    We're learning about division, and the sums are tricky.
    • Charles Dickens
      a large sheet of paper [] covered with long sums
  3. A quantity of money.
    a tidy sum
    the sum of forty pounds
    • Bible, Acts xxii. 28
      With a great sum obtained I this freedom.
  4. A summary; the principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium.
    This is the sum of all the evidence in the case.
    This is the sum and substance of his objections.
  5. A central idea or point.
  6. The utmost degree.
    • Milton
      Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought / My story to the sum of earthly bliss.
  7. (obsolete) An old English measure of corn equal to the quarter.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Volume 4, page 207:
      The sum is also used for the quarter, and the strike for the bushel.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
See alsoEdit
TranslationsEdit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

VerbEdit

sum ‎(third-person singular simple present sums, present participle summing, simple past and past participle summed)

  1. (transitive) To add together.
    • 2005, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. 250b.
      when you say that stability and change are, it's because you're summing them up together as embraced by it, and taking note of the communion each of them has with being.
  2. (transitive) To give a summary of.
SynonymsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

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 Som (currency) on Wikipedia

Wikipedia

From Kazakh сом ‎(som), Kyrgyz сом ‎(som), Uyghur سوم, and Uzbek soʻm, all of which have the core signification “pure”, used in elliptical reference to historical coins of pure gold.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. The basic unit of money in Kyrgyzstan.
  2. The basic unit of money in Uzbekistan.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Eye dialect spelling of some.

PronounEdit

sum

  1. (African American Vernacular) Eye dialect spelling of some.

External linksEdit

AnagramsEdit


FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

sum

  1. like, as
  2. when, as

ParticleEdit

sum ‎(relative particle)

  1. that, who, which

SynonymsEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

sum

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐌿𐌼

IcelandicEdit

AdjectiveEdit

sum

  1. the feminine nominative singular of sumur ‎(some)
  2. the neuter nominative plural of sumur ‎(some)
  3. the neuter accusative plural of sumur ‎(some)
    Ég þekkti sum barnanna.
    I knew some of the children.

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

PIE roots
*h₁es-
*bʰuH-

From Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi ‎(I am, I exist). Cognates include Ancient Greek εἰμί ‎(eimí), Sanskrit अस्मि ‎(ásmi), Old English eom (English am); the forms beginning with F from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH- ‎(to become, be).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

sum ‎(present infinitive esse, perfect active fuī, future participle futūrus); irregular conjugation

  1. (copulative) I am, exist, have (with dative)
    • Heauton Timorumenos (“The Self-Tormentor”) by Publius Terentius Afer
      Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto.
      I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me.
    • René Descartes
      Cogito, ergo sum.
      I think, therefore I am.
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations (Latin text and English translations here)
      O di immortales, ubinam gentium sumus? Quam rem publicam habemus? In qua urbe vivimus?.
      O ye immortal gods, where on earth are we? What is the government we have? In what city do we live?
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
    Sum sine regno.
    I am without a kingdom.
    Sic sum ut vides.
    Thus I am as you see.
    Dixit duas res ei rubori fuisse.
    He said that two things had abashed him.
    Civis romanus sum.
    I am a Roman citizen.

ConjugationEdit

  • The singular second person future imperative form estō is commonly, though not always, used in preference to the singular present imperative es.
   Conjugation of sum (highly irregular, suppletive, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sum es est sumus estis sunt
imperfect eram erās erat erāmus erātis erant
future erō eris, ere erit erimus eritis erunt
perfect fuī fuistī fuit fuimus fuistis fuērunt, fuēre
pluperfect fueram fuerās fuerat fuerāmus fuerātis fuerant
future perfect fuerō fueris fuerit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sim sīs sit sīmus sītis sint
imperfect essem, forem essēs, forēs esset, foret essēmus, forēmus essētis, forētis essent, forent
perfect fuerim fuerīs fuerit fuerīmus fuerītis fuerint
pluperfect fuissem fuissēs fuisset fuissēmus fuissētis fuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present es este
future estō estō estōte suntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives esse fuisse futūrus esse, fore
participles futūrus

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit


LojbanEdit

RafsiEdit

sum

  1. rafsi of sumti.

Norwegian BokmålEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin summa

NounEdit

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summer, definite plural summene)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Hva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the verb summe

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin summa

NounEdit

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summar, definite plural summane)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Kva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the verb summe

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

sum n ‎(definite singular sumet, indefinite plural sum, definite plural suma)

  1. an act of swimming
    Dei la på sum utover mot holmen.
    They started swimming towards the holm.

Etymology 4Edit

From Old Norse sumr.

Alternative formsEdit

  • som (main form)

PronounEdit

sum m (feminine sum, neuter sumt, plural sume)

  1. some
    Sumt av det er nytt, resten er ved det gamle.
    Some of it is new, the rest is like it used to be.

ReferencesEdit


Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old High German sum, Old Norse sumr

PronounEdit

sum n

  1. some

DescendantsEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old English sum, Old Norse sumr

PronounEdit

sum n

  1. some

DeclensionEdit



PolishEdit

sum (a catfish, Silurus glanis)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

sum m anim

  1. European catfish

DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

sum f pl

  1. genitive plural of suma

ShaboEdit

VerbEdit

sum

  1. say

SloveneEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

súm m inan ‎(genitive súma, nominative plural súmi)

  1. suspicion, mistrust

DeclensionEdit


VurësEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

sum

  1. to drink
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