From Proto-Italic *aissāts, with the suffix -tāt-s restored via analogy. The root is from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- (burn; fire), and has cognates in Latin aestus, perhaps aedis, Ancient Greek αἴθω (aíthō)), Old English ād (pyre). The noun suffix is from Proto-Indo-European *-teh₂ts.

De Vaan criticizes a prevalent simple etymology from *h₂e-h₂idʰ-teh₂t-s (with an i-reduplicated root) as unfounded, also observing -dʰt- becomes -ss- in Latin rather than -st-, preferring instead *h₂eydʰ-teh₂ts > Proto-Italic *aissāt-s, which then had the suffix -t- consonant restored.



aestās f (genitive aestātis); third declension

  1. summer


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative aestās aestātēs
Genitive aestātis aestātum
Dative aestātī aestātibus
Accusative aestātem aestātēs
Ablative aestāte aestātibus
Vocative aestās aestātēs

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


In many Romance languages, this term was replaced by the originally adjectival aestīvus; see also aestīvālis.

  • Dalmatian: instuat
  • Old French: estet, ested, esté
  • Friulian: istât
  • Italian: estate


  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “aestās”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 28
  • aestas in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • aestas in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • aestas in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • in the height of summer, depth of winter: summa aestate, hieme