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Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English somer, sumer, from Old English sumor (summer), from Proto-Germanic *sumaraz (summer), from Proto-Indo-European *sam-, *sem-, *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer, year). Cognate with Scots somer, sumer, simer (summer), West Frisian simmer (summer), Saterland Frisian Suumer (summer), Dutch zomer (summer), Low German Sommer (summer), German Sommer (summer), Danish and Norwegian Bokmål sommer (summer), Swedish sommar (summer), Norwegian Nynorsk and Icelandic sumar (summer), Welsh haf (summer), Armenian ամ (am, year), ամառ (amaṙ, summer), Sanskrit समा (samā, a half-year, season, weather, year), Northern Kurdish havîn (summer), Central Kurdish [script needed] (hawîn, summer).

Alternative formsEdit


summer (countable and uncountable, plural summers)

Summer in Germany
  1. One of four seasons, traditionally the second, marked by the longest and typically hottest days of the year due to the inclination of the Earth and thermal lag. Typically regarded as being from June 21 to September 22 or 23 in parts of the USA, the months of June, July and August in the United Kingdom and the months of December, January and February in the Southern Hemisphere.
    the heat of summer
    • a1420, The British Museum Additional MS, 12,056, “Wounds complicated by the Dislocation of a Bone”, in Robert von Fleischhacker, editor, Lanfranc's "Science of cirurgie.", London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co, translation of original by Lanfranc of Milan, published 1894, ISBN 1163911380, page 63:
      Ne take noon hede to brynge togidere þe parties of þe boon þat is to-broken or dislocate, til viij. daies ben goon in þe wyntir, & v. in þe somer; for þanne it schal make quytture, and be sikir from swellynge; & þanne brynge togidere þe brynkis eiþer þe disiuncture after þe techynge þat schal be seid in þe chapitle of algebra.
    • 1892, Walter Besant, chapter II, in The Ivory Gate: A Novel, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, OCLC 16832619:
      At twilight in the summer there is never anybody to fear—man, woman, or cat—in the chambers and at that hour the mice come out. They do not eat parchment or foolscap or red tape, but they eat the luncheon crumbs.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 1, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      A chap named Eleazir Kendrick and I had chummed in together the summer afore and built a fish-weir and shanty at Setuckit Point, down Orham way. For a spell we done pretty well.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 5, in The China Governess[1]:
      A waiter brought his aperitif, which was a small scotch and soda, and as he sipped it gratefully he sighed. ¶ ‘Civilized,’ he said to Mr. Campion. ‘Humanizing.’ [] ‘Cigars and summer days and women in big hats with swansdown face-powder, that's what it reminds me of.’
Usage notesEdit
  • Note that season names are usually spelled in all lowercase letters in English. This is contrast to the days of the week and months of the year, which are always spelled with a capitalized first letter, for example Thursday or September.
Coordinate termsEdit
Derived termsEdit


summer (third-person singular simple present summers, present participle summering, simple past and past participle summered)

  1. (intransitive) To spend the summer, as in a particular place on holiday.
    We like to summer in the Mediterranean.
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Seasons in English · seasons (layout · text)
spring summer fall, autumn winter

Etymology 2Edit

From Anglo-Norman summer, sumer, from Vulgar Latin saumārius, for Latin sagmārius, from sagma (sum).


summer (plural summers)

  1. (obsolete) A pack-horse.
  2. A horizontal beam supporting a building.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

sum +‎ -er


summer (plural summers)

  1. A person who sums. (Compare adder.)
Derived termsEdit

Norwegian BokmålEdit


summer m

  1. indefinite plural of sum

Old FrenchEdit

Alternative formsEdit


summer m (oblique plural summers, nominative singular summers, nominative plural summer)

  1. summer (pack horse)
  2. summer (beam)


  • summer (pack horse; horizontal beam)