See also: Summer

English edit

 
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Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English somer, sumer, from Old English sumor (summer), from Proto-West Germanic *sumar, from Proto-Germanic *sumaraz (summer), from Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó-, oblique of *semh₂- (summer, year).

Cognate with Scots somer, sumer, simer (summer), West Frisian simmer (summer), Saterland Frisian Suumer (summer), Dutch zomer (summer), Low German Sommer (summer), German Sommer (summer), Danish and Norwegian Bokmål sommer (summer), Swedish sommar (summer), Norwegian Nynorsk and Icelandic sumar (summer), Welsh haf (summer), Armenian ամ (am, year), ամառ (amaṙ, summer), Sanskrit समा (sámā, a half-year, season, weather, year), Avestan𐬵𐬀𐬨(ham-, summer), Middle Persian ḥʾmyn (hāmīn, summer), Northern Kurdish havîn (summer), Central Kurdishھاوین(hawîn, summer).

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

summer (countable and uncountable, plural summers)

 
Summer in Germany
  1. One of four seasons, traditionally the second, marked by the longest and typically hottest days of the year due to the inclination of the Earth and thermal lag. Typically regarded as being from June 21 to September 22 or 23 in parts of the USA, the months of June, July and August in the United Kingdom and the months of December, January and February in the Southern Hemisphere.
    the heat of summer
    • 1892, Walter Besant, chapter II, in The Ivory Gate [], New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, [], →OCLC:
      At twilight in the summer there is never anybody to fear—man, woman, or cat—in the chambers and at that hour the mice come out. They do not eat parchment or foolscap or red tape, but they eat the luncheon crumbs.
    • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter I, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, →OCLC:
      A chap named Eleazir Kendrick and I had chummed in together the summer afore and built a fish-weir and shanty at Setuckit Point, down Orham way. For a spell we done pretty well.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 5, in The China Governess: A Mystery, London: Chatto & Windus, →OCLC:
      A waiter brought his aperitif, which was a small scotch and soda, and as he sipped it gratefully he sighed. ¶ ‘Civilized,’ he said to Mr. Campion. ‘Humanizing.’ [] ‘Cigars and summer days and women in big hats with swansdown face-powder, that's what it reminds me of.’
  2. (poetic or humorous) year; used to give the age of a person, usually a young one.
    He was barely eighteen summers old.
    She had seen not more than twenty summers.
  3. (figuratively) Most flourishing, happy, or beautiful period; golden age, prime.
    • 1829, Edgar Allan Poe, “Tamerlane”, in Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems:
      O! craving heart, for the lost flowers
      And sunshine of my summer hours!
  4. (countable, fashion) Someone with light, pinkish skin that has a blue undertone, light hair and eyes, seen as best suited to certain colors of clothing.
Usage notes edit

Note that season names are not capitalized in modern English except where any noun would be capitalized, e.g. at the beginning of a sentence or as part of a name (Old Man Winter, the Winter War, Summer Glau). This is in contrast to the days of the week and months of the year, which are always capitalized (Thursday or September).

Antonyms edit
Coordinate terms edit
Derived terms edit
terms derived from the noun summer
Translations edit

Verb edit

summer (third-person singular simple present summers, present participle summering, simple past and past participle summered)

  1. (intransitive) To spend the summer, as in a particular place on holiday.
    We like to summer in the Mediterranean.
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

See also edit

Seasons in English · seasons (layout · text) · category
spring summer autumn, fall winter

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English somer, from Anglo-Norman summer, sumer, from Vulgar Latin saumārius, for Late Latin sagmārius, from Latin sagma (sum). Compare sumpter.

Noun edit

summer (plural summers)

  1. (architecture) A horizontal beam supporting a building.
    Synonyms: summerbeam, summertree
  2. (obsolete) A pack-horse.
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

sum +‎ -er

Noun edit

summer (plural summers)

  1. A person who sums.
  2. A machine or algorithm that sums.
    • 2014, Michael R. Lindeburg, chapter 48, in FE Mechanical Review Manual, page 2:
      A basic feedback system consists of ... and a summing point (comparator or summer).
    • 2016, George H. Olsen, Ian Burdess, Computers and Microprocessors: Made Simple, page 36:
      The output of the summer is therefore fed into the input of the first integrator.
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Alemannic German edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German sumar, from Proto-Germanic *sumaraz. Cognate with German Sommer, English summer, Dutch zomer, West Frisian simmer, Icelandic sumar.

Noun edit

summer m

  1. (Issime, Formazza) summer

See also edit

Seasons in Alemannic German · Italian Walser (layout · text) · category
Carcoforo: ustog
Formazza: langsé
Gressoney: ustag
Issime: oustaga
Rimella: üstàg
ŝchummer
summer
sòmmer
summer
ŝchumer
herbscht
herbscht
herbscht
hérbscht
harpscht
winter
wénter
wénter
winter
wenter

References edit

Bavarian edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

summer

  1. (Sappada) summer

References edit

Mòcheno edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German sumer, from Old High German sumar, from Proto-West Germanic *sumar, from Proto-Germanic *sumaraz (summer). Cognate with German Sommer, English summer.

Noun edit

summer m

  1. summer

See also edit

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Noun edit

summer m

  1. indefinite plural of sum

Verb edit

summer

  1. present of summe

Old French edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Late Latin saumarius, sagmarius, from Latin sagma.

Noun edit

summer oblique singularm (oblique plural summers, nominative singular summers, nominative plural summer)

  1. summer (pack horse)
  2. summer (beam)

Descendants edit

  • English: summer (pack horse; horizontal beam)

References edit