Middle IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish cía, from Proto-Celtic *kʷēs (compare Welsh pwy), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷis.

PronounEdit

cía

  1. (interrogative) who?
    • c. 1000, The Tale of Mac Da Thó's Pig, section 3, published in Irische Teste, vol. 1 (1880), edited by Ernst Windisch:
      Tabair dóibsium dib línaib, cumma cía thóetsat imbi.
      Give it to them both, it doesn’t matter who will fall because of it.
DescendantsEdit
  • Irish:
  • Scottish Gaelic:
  • Manx: quoi

MutationEdit

Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
cía chía cía
pronounced with /ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit


Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Celtic *kʷēs (compare Welsh pwy), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷis.

PronounEdit

cía (feminine cisí, neuter cid, plural citné or cisné) (triggers /h/-prothesis before vowels)

  1. (interrogative) who? what?
    • c. 700, Críth Gablach, published in Críth Gablach (1941, Dublin: Stationery Office), edited by Daniel Anthony Binchy, p. 21, paragraph 40, line 536
      Cía cethrar? Rí ⁊ brithem ⁊ dias i manchuini.
      Who are the four people? A king, judge, and two others in service.
    • c. 775, Táin Bó Fraích from the Book of Leinster, published in Táin bó Fraích (1974, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited by Wolfgang Meid, line 299
      As·biurt-sa frie: "Cía lóg rom·bia latt ara fagbáil?" As·bert-si frim-sa dom·bérad seirc mblíadnae dam-sa.
      I said to her, "what reward will I have for finding it?" She said to me that she would give me [her] love in one year.
  2. (indefinite) whoever, whatever

Usage notesEdit

The stressed interrogative pronoun cía and its feminine, neuter, and plural counterparts either take a relative clause describing an action involving the noun to be identified or a substantive indicating whose identity is to be found. No copula is used in the latter case.

Gender disagreement where the gender-inflected forms fail to agree in gender with their predicated noun occurs occasionally (in these cases often defaulting to cía), and in the case of some words like airm f (place), it occurs regularly.

DescendantsEdit

DeterminerEdit

cía

  1. whatever

AdverbEdit

cía

  1. wherever
  2. however

Etymology 2Edit

Uncertain; possibly from the pronoun (Etymology 1).

ConjunctionEdit

cía (triggers lenition)

  1. although
  2. that (introducing a noun clause)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:cía.

Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

MutationEdit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
cía chía cía
pronounced with /ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit


SpanishEdit

VerbEdit

cía

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of ciar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of ciar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of ciar.