Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit


fo- +‎ Proto-Celtic *kerdeti (to put, lay, move) (compare Middle Welsh kerdet, Welsh cerdded (to walk, go), Breton kerzed (a march, a walk), Cornish kerdhes (to go)), from Proto-Indo-European *kerd- (to swing) (compare Ancient Greek κραδαίνω (kradaínō, to swing), Latin cardō (hinge), Old High German scerdo (hinge)).

The prototonic forms of the present stem (·cuirethar etc.) are denominative from cor (putting, casting, throwing), from Proto-Celtic *koros (act of putting, casting, a throw), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to turn).

The perfective and perfect forms (ro·lá etc.) are from ro- + Proto-Celtic *layo-, from Proto-Indo-European *leh₁- (Latin lētum (death); Old Church Slavonic лѣнъ (lěnŭ, lazy); Hittite [script needed] (laizzi, lets); Lithuanian liáutis (stop); Gothic 𐌻𐌴𐍅𐌾𐌰𐌽 (lēwjan, betray), 𐌻𐌴𐍅 (lēw, opportunity, cause)).



fo·ceird (prototonic ·cuirethar, verbal noun cor)

  1. to put, place, set
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 68b9
      cia beith ar n‑acathar nech inna rétu inducbaidi in betha so, arnach·corathar i mmoth ⁊ machthad dia seirc ⁊ dia n‑accubur
      though it be that someone sees the glorious things of this world, that he may not be put in stupor and admiration by love for them and by desire for them
  2. to throw, cast


This verb suppletes three verb roots belonging to three separate conjugation classes.

  • The deuterotonic forms, dominated by direct conjugations of fo·ceird itself, are class B I, and form an á-preterite, s-future (the s obscured by fusion with the root cluster -rd-), and s-subjunctive.
  • The prototonic forms in ·cuirethar and the like are class A II, and like almost all weak verbs form an s-preterite and a-subjunctive. The prototonic future surprisingly is derived from the deuterotonic stem instead.
  • The perfective forms in ·lá and the like are class A III and form an s-perfect and an a-subjunctive.


Derived termsEdit

Terms derived from ·cuirethar


  • Middle Irish: cuirid


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
fo·ceird fo·cheird fo·ceird
pronounced with /-ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.