Etymology 1Edit






  1. the disc of any celestial body, including the sun, the moon, the stars, and the planets
  2. the Aten; the disc of the sun in particular, often as the manifestation of the solar god
    • c. 1550 BCE – 1295 BCE, Great Hymn to Osiris (Stela of Amenmose, Louvre C 286) lines 19–20:
      šnwt n(j) jṯn ẖr sḫrw.f mḥ(y)t jtr(w) nwy ḫt n(j) ꜥnḫ rnp(w)t nbt
      What the sun disk encircles is under his directions, the north wind, the river, and water, grain and all fresh plants.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit





  1. (transitive) to set oneself against, to oppose
    • c. 1900 BCE, The Instructions of Kagemni (pPrisse/pBN 183) lines 2.1–2.2:
      (j)m ꜥꜣ jb.k ḥr ḫpš m ḥr(j) jb ḏꜣmw.k zꜣw jtn.k
      Don’t grow arrogant (lit. don’t make your heart big) on account of (your) strength in the midst of your cohort, lest you be challenged.
  2. (transitive) to contradict


  • von Lieven, Alexandra (2001) “Scheiben am Himmel — Zur Bedeutung von ı͗tn und ı͗tn.t” in Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, volume 29, pages 277–282
  • Miatello, Luca (2014) “On the Etymology of jtn and the Solar Iconography” in Göttinger Miszellen 242, pages 71–87
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 457.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Takács, Gábor (2007) Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian, volume 3, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 757