Alternative forms




From manus (hand) + uncertain second element; perhaps Proto-Indo-European *dʰers- (to be bold), from *dʰer- (to hold). More at īnfestus.[1]


  • (Classical Latin) IPA(key): /ma.niˈfes.tus/, [mänɪˈfɛs̠t̪ʊs̠]
  • (modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ma.niˈfes.tus/, [mäniˈfɛst̪us]
  • Bennett 1907 considers the length of the "e" 'very uncertain', citing "[mani]féstvm" from C.I.L. i. p. 319 (a fragment of the Fasti Praenestini, month of December) as potential inscriptional evidence of a long vowel.[2] Spanish manifiesto cannot be an entirely inherited form, but it might be a semi-learned form with regular development of -ie- from -ĕ-. However, the Spanish form does not exclude the possibility of an original -ē- that underwent later shortening or analogical replacement, as in Spanish fiesta from Latin fēstum.



manifestus (feminine manifesta, neuter manifestum, comparative manifestior, superlative manifestissimus, adverb manifestō); first/second-declension adjective

  1. manifest, specifically
    1. (of people) caught in the act, plainly guilty
    2. (of crimes) detected in the act, flagrant, plain
    3. (plainly apprehensible by the mind) obvious, self-evident
    4. (recognisable by clear signs) clearly visible, conspicuous; unmistakeable, undoubted
      • c. 25 BCE, Ovid, Heroides, Letter 15: "Sappho Phaoni":
        Sūme fidem et pharetram—fīēs manifestus Apollō
        Take up a lyre and a quiver, and you'll become Apollo manifest
      • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.358–359:
        “[...] ipse deum manifēstō in lūmine vīdī
        intrantem mūrōs, vōcemque hīs auribus hausī.”
        “I myself saw – with clear [vision], in daylight – the god [Mercury] entering the [city] walls, and with these ears I heard his message.”
    5. (giving clear signs) plain, clear
      Synonym: cōnspicuus
      Antonyms: clandestīnus, occultus, sēcrētus, arcānus, perobscūrus
      spīrāns ac vītae manifesta
      breathing and giving clear signs of life



First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative manifestus manifesta manifestum manifestī manifestae manifesta
Genitive manifestī manifestae manifestī manifestōrum manifestārum manifestōrum
Dative manifestō manifestō manifestīs
Accusative manifestum manifestam manifestum manifestōs manifestās manifesta
Ablative manifestō manifestā manifestō manifestīs
Vocative manifeste manifesta manifestum manifestī manifestae manifesta

Derived terms





  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 303
  2. ^ Charles E. Bennett (1907) “Hidden Quantity”, in The Latin Language – a historical outline of its sounds, inflections, and syntax, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, page 60

Further reading

  • manifestus” on page 1181 of the Oxford Latin Dictionary (2nd ed., 2012)
  • manifestus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • manifestus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • manifestus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • manifestus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • manifestus in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[1], pre-publication website, 2005-2016