See also: Stum

English edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch stom (unfermented, literally mute; dull). Compare French vin muet, German stummer Wein. Doublet of shtum.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /stʌm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ʌm

Noun edit

stum (countable and uncountable, plural stums)

  1. (obsolete) Unfermented grape juice; must.
    • 1620s, Ben Jonson, Leges Convivales
      Let our wines, without mixture of stum, be all fine.
    • 1682, John Dryden, The Medal:
      And with thy stum ferment their fainting cause.
  2. (obsolete) Wine revived by new fermentation, resulting from the admixture of must.
    • 1664, Samuel Butler, Hudibras; with notes by T. R. Nash, volume 1, published 1835, Part II, Canto 1, page 265:
      Drink ev'ry letter on't in stum,
      And make it brisk champaign become.[note 1]
    • 1859, The family manual and servants' guide, 9th edition:
      To each hogshead of genuine Bordeaux wine, there are four gallons of Benicarlo, half a gallon of stum wine, and a small quantity of Hermitage added, which mixture undergoes a slight fermentation, and is then exported under the name of claret.
    • 1987, André Bustanoby, The Wrath of Grapes: Drinking and the Church Divided, →ISBN, page 36:
      But stum wine was not intended for drinking.

Translations edit

Verb edit

stum (third-person singular simple present stums, present participle stumming, simple past and past participle stummed)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To ferment.
  2. (transitive, obsolete) To renew (wine etc.) by mixing must with it and raising a new fermentation.
    • 1696, John Floyer, The praeternatural State of animal Hurnours described by their sensible Qualities:
      We stum our crude wines [] to renew their spirits.
  3. (transitive, obsolete) To fume, as a cask of liquor, with burning sulphur.
    • 1789, “Cultivation of the Vine”, in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, volume 1:
      Since I have taken this method with cyder, it has proved more like wine than common drink, but then I racked it off a second and a third time, as soon as it appeared fine, and then stummed the cask that received it the lasttime []

References edit

  1. ^ T. R. Nash disputed the sense, noting "Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, has quoted these lines to prove that stum may signify wine revived by a new fermentation, but, perhaps, it means no more than figuratively to say that the remembrance of the widow's charms could turn bad wine into good, foul muddy wine, into clear sparkling champaigne."

Anagrams edit

Danish edit

Adjective edit

stum (neuter stumt, plural and definite singular attributive stumme)

  1. mute, not possessing the ability of speech
  2. temporarily unable to speak due to strong emotion
  3. not involving speech
    De så ikke min stumme bøn.
    They did not see my silent plea.

Latvian edit

Verb edit

stum

  1. inflection of stumt:
    1. second-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Middle Low German stum. Compare to Swedish stum and Danish stum.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

stum (neuter singular stumt, definite singular and plural stumme, comparative stummare, indefinite superlative stummast, definite superlative stummaste)

  1. quiet, silent (also about pronunciation of letters)
  2. speechless, mute (also about people)

References edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Swedish stumber.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

stum (not comparable)

  1. mute (unable to speak)
  2. rigid (not flexing or stretching)
    stumt tyg
    non-stretch fabric

Declension edit

Inflection of stum
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular stum stummare stummast
Neuter singular stumt stummare stummast
Plural stumma stummare stummast
Masculine plural3 stumme stummare stummast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 stumme stummare stummaste
All stumma stummare stummaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

Anagrams edit