Latvian edit

Etymology edit

There are different theories about this word. Some derive it from Proto-Baltic *stum-, from the zero grade *stm̥- of Proto-Indo-European *stem- (to push; to stutter), whence also Old Norse stemma (to press, to hinder), Middle High German stemmen (to halt; to make stiff), German stemmen (to lift, to press, to hinder); but note that the “push” meaning is attested only in Baltic languages. Others claim that it comes from Proto-Indo-European *tew-, *tu-, *stew-, *stu- (to push, to hit), whence also Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌿𐍄𐌰𐌽 (stautan), Old High German stōzan, German stoßen (to push, to shove), and, with an extra m, also the Baltic terms and Russian unattested *стумать (*stumatʹ, to push), from which dialectal зату́мный (zatúmnyj, dark; far (e.g., region)), засту́ма (zastúma) “sad person” (< “repulsed, pushed away by something”), Ukrainian за́стум (zástum, remote area). It is also possible that both sources have contributed to the formation of this word. Cognates include Lithuanian stùmti.[1]

Pronunciation edit

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Verb edit

stumt (transitive, 1st conjugation, present stumju, stum, stumj, past stūmu)

  1. to push, to pull (to apply force to the front of something in order to make it move)
    stumt ratiņusto push the cart
    stumt galdu pie sienasto push the table (close to) the wall
    lokomotīve stumj vagonuthe locomotive pulls the wagon, train car
    ceļš ir izdangāts, un man jānokāpj no velosipēda; tālāk stumju velosipēdu pie rokasthe road is potholed, and I had to get off the bike; further I carried (lit. pulled) the bike by hand
    (figuratively) rīta saule stūma gājējiem pa priekšu garu, tumšu enu — the morning sun pulled a long, dark shadow in front of the passers-by
  2. to push, to pull (to make a person or animal move by force)
    Toms nikni sakampa brāli un stūma uz priekšuToms angrily grabbed (his) brother and pulled him forward
    pats kāpj debesīs, citus stumj ellēhimself (he) goes up to heaven, the others (he) pushes into hell
    neko tu nezini, tu ej, kur dzīvi tevi stumjyou don't know anything, you go where life pulls, pushes you
  3. to push into (something), to shove (usually with difficulty)
    stumt roku kabatāto shove (one's) hand into (one's) pocket
    stumt kāju zābakāto shove (one's) foot into (one's) boot

Conjugation edit

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Related terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “stumt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN