There are different theories about this word. Some derive it from Proto-Baltic *stum-, from the zero grade *stm̥- of Proto-Indo-European *stem- (to push; to stutter), whence also Old Norse stemma (to press, to hinder), Middle High German stemmen (to halt; to make stiff), German stemmen (to lift, to press, to hinder); but note that the “push” meaning is attested only in Baltic languages. Others claim that it comes from Proto-Indo-European *tew-, *tu-, *stew-, *stu- (to push, to hit), whence also Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌿𐍄𐌰𐌽 (stautan), Old High German stōzan, German stoßen (to push, to shove), and, with an extra m, also the Baltic terms and Russian unattested *стумать (*stumatʹ, to push), from which dialectal зату́мный (zatúmnyj, dark; far (e.g., region)), засту́ма (zastúma) “sad person” (< “repulsed, pushed away by something”), Ukrainian за́стум (zástum, remote area). It is also possible that both sources have contributed to the formation of this word. Cognates include Lithuanian stùmti.[1]


  This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)


stumt tr., 1st conj., pres. stumju, stum, stumj, past stūmu

  1. to push, to pull (to apply force to the front of something in order to make it move)
    stumt ratiņus‎ ― to push the cart
    stumt galdu pie sienas‎ ― to push the table (close to) the wall
    lokomotīve stumj vagonu‎ ― the locomotive pulls the wagon, train car
    ceļš ir izdangāts, un man jānokāpj no velosipēda; tālāk stumju velosipēdu pie rokas‎ ― the road is potholed, and I had to get off the bike; further I carried (lit. pulled) the bike by hand
    (figuratively) rīta saule stūma gājējiem pa priekšu garu, tumšu enu — the morning sun pulled a long, dark shadow in front of the passers-by
  2. to push, to pull (to make a person or animal move by force)
    Toms nikni sakampa brāli un stūma uz priekšu‎ ― Toms angrily grabbed (his) brother and pulled him forward
    pats kāpj debesīs, citus stumj ellē‎ ― himself (he) goes up to heaven, the others (he) pushes into hell
    neko tu nezini, tu ej, kur dzīvi tevi stumj‎ ― you don't know anything, you go where life pulls, pushes you
  3. to push into (something), to shove (usually with difficulty)
    stumt roku kabatā‎ ― to shove (one's) hand into (one's) pocket
    stumt kāju zābakā‎ ― to shove (one's) foot into (one's) boot



Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Related termsEdit


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “stumt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7