EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English moste ("must", literally, "had to", the past tense of Middle English moten (to have to)), from Old English mōste (had to), 1st & 3rd person singular past tense of mōtan (to be allowed, be able to, have the opportunity to, be compelled to, must, may). From Proto-Germanic *mōtaną. Cognate with Dutch moest (had to), German musste (had to), Swedish måste (must, have to, be obliged to). More at mote.

VerbEdit

must (third-person singular simple present must, present participle -, simple past must, past participle -)

  1. (modal auxiliary, defective) To do with certainty; indicates that the speaker is certain that the subject will have executed the predicate.
    If it has rained all day, it must be very wet outside.
    You picked one of two, and it wasn't the first: it must have been the second.
  2. (modal auxiliary, defective) To do as a requirement; indicates that the sentence subject is required as an imperative or directive to execute the sentence predicate, with failure to do so resulting in a negative consequence.
    You must arrive in class on time. — the requirement is an imperative
    This door handle must be rotated fully. — the requirement is a directive
  3. (modal auxiliary, defective) said about something that is very likely, probable, or certain to be true
    The children must be asleep by now.
Usage notesEdit
  • (auxiliary, to do with certainty): Compare with weaker auxiliary verb should, indicating a strong probability of the predicate’s execution.
  • (auxiliary, to do as a requirement): Compare with weaker auxiliary verb should, indicating mere intent for the predicate’s execution; and stronger auxiliary verb will, indicating that the negative consequence will be unusually severe.
  • The past tense of “must” is also “must”. In main clauses, this use of the past tense is almost always literary (see King James Bible, Leiber, and Alcott quotations below). In subordinate clauses, it is more common: He knew what he must do. Otherwise, the past sense is usually conveyed by had to. It is possible to use was bound to for the past also. For this reason, have to and be bound to are also used as alternatives to must in the present and future.
  • The principal verb, if easily supplied, may be omitted. In modern usage this is mainly literary (see Housman and Tolkien quotations below).
  • Must is unusual in its negation. Must not still expresses a definite certainty or requirement. Need, on the other hand, is negated in the usual manner. Compare:
You {must - need to} not read that book. (It is necessary that you not read that book.)
You need not read that book. (It is not necessary that you read that book.)
  • The second-person singular (thou being the subject) no longer adds -est (as it did in Old English).
QuotationsEdit
  • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], OCLC 964384981, Genesis 47:29:
    And the time drew nigh that Israel must die, and he called his sonne Ioseph, and said vnto him, If now I haue found grace in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand vnder my thigh, and deale kindly and truely with mee, bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt.
  • 1868, Louisa May Alcott, Little Women
    She had to wash the cups every morning, and polish up the old-fashioned spoons, the fat silver teapot, and the glasses till they shone. Then she must dust the room, and what a trying job that was.
  • 1936, Alfred Edward Housman, More Poems, IX, lines 3-6
    Forth I wander, forth I must,
    And drink of life again.
    Forth I must by hedgerow bowers
    To look at the leaves uncurled
  • 1937 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit
    We must away ere break of day
    To seek the pale enchanted gold.
  • 1968 Fritz Leiber, Swords in the Mist
    Whereupon while one patched or napped, the other must stand guard against inquisitive two- and three-headed dragons and even an occasional monocephalic.
TranslationsEdit
See alsoEdit

NounEdit

must (plural musts)

  1. Something that is mandatory or required.
    If you'll be out all day, a map is a must.
SynonymsEdit
AntonymsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle English must, from Old English must and Old French must, most, both from Latin mustum.

NounEdit

must (plural musts)

  1. The property of being stale or musty.
  2. Something that exhibits the property of being stale or musty.
  3. Fruit juice that will ferment or has fermented, usually from grapes.
    • c. 1874, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Ovid in Exile
      No sweet grape lies hidden here in the shade of its vine-leaves,
      No fermenting must fills and o'erflows the deep vats.
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

must (third-person singular simple present musts, present participle musting, simple past and past participle musted)

  1. (transitive) To make musty.
  2. (intransitive) To become musty.
Further readingEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Persian مست(mast, drunk, inebriated), from Middle Persian 𐭬𐭮𐭲(mast).

NounEdit

must (plural musts)

  1. A time during which male elephants exhibit increased levels of sexual activity and aggressiveness (also spelled musth).
    • 1936, George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant, an essay in the magazine New Writing:
      It was not, of course, a wild elephant, but a tame one which had gone ‘must’.
  2. An elephant in this sexual and aggressive state.

AnagramsEdit


DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English must, from the past tense of Proto-Germanic *mōtaną, whence native moeten.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

must m (plural musts)

  1. a must (necessity, prerequisite)
    Synonym: moetje
    Een rijbewijs is een must als je taxichauffeur wil worden.
    A driver's license is a must if you want to be a taxi driver.

EstonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *musta. Cognate with Finnish musta, Veps must and Livonian mustā. Possibly from Proto-Germanic *mus-ta-, compare Norwegian Bokmål must (steam, fume, mist).[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈmust/
  • Hyphenation: must

AdjectiveEdit

must (genitive musta, partitive musta, comparative mustem, superlative kõige mustem or mustim)

  1. black (color)
    Lindude sulestik on must, aga tiibadel märkame valget laiku.
    The plumage of the birds is black, but you can notice a white spot on the wings.
  2. Dark, without light, illumination (and poorly visible).
    Mustad sügisööd.
    Dark autumn nights.
    1. Without snow.
      Maa on must ja kelgutada ei saa.
      The ground is without snow and you can't go sledding.
  3. Having dark skin.
    Must poiss muudkui naeris.
    The black kid kept laughing.
  4. Dirty, unclean, full of garbage and/or grime.
    Mu riided said mustaks ja pidin neid pesema.
    My clothes became dirty and I had to wash them.
    1. Not requiring special skills, making something or someone dirty.
      Hauakaevaja must töö.
      The dirty job of a gravedigger.
    Synonym: räpane
  5. Grim, dreary, hopeless, without any (good) solution.
    Meeleolu on must.
    The mood around here is dark.
    1. Illegal, unofficial, disgraceful.
      Kartsin, et mu mustad teod tulevad päevavalgele.
      I feared, that my dark acts will come to light.

DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

must (genitive musta, partitive musta)

  1. The color black.
    Halli värvi kombineerimine musta ja valgega suurendad enda usaldatavust.
    By combining gray with black and white, you increase your own reliability.
  2. Something colored in black.
    Otsustasime, kumb mängib valgete, kumb mustadega.
    We decided, who plays with whites (white chesspieces), and who plays with blacks (black chesspieces).
  3. A person having dark skin.
    Meie tulevikulootus ei ole enam lapsed, vaid hoopis mustad.
    Our hopes for the future aren't our children anymore, but blacks.

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Colors in Estonian · värvid (layout · text)
     valge      hall      must
             punane; karmiinpunane              oranž; pruun              kollane; koorvalge, kreemikas, kreemjas
             laimiroheline, kollakasroheline              roheline              mündiroheline; tumeroheline
             tsüaansinine, rohekassinine; sinakasroheline, siniroheline              taevasinine, taevassinine              sinine
             lilla, violetne; potisinine, indigosinine              fuksia, magentapunane; lilla, purpurne, purpurpunane              roosa

ReferencesEdit


FinnishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

A variant of musta < minusta (of me).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈmust/, [ˈmus̠t̪]
  • Rhymes: -ust
  • Syllabification: must

PronounEdit

must

  1. (colloquial, eye dialect) elative singular of
    Must' on tärkeetä, että.. / Minusta on tärkeää, että... (standard)
    I think it is important that...

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from English must.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈmɑst/, [ˈmɑs̠t̪]

NounEdit

must

  1. (colloquial) must (something mandatory or required)
    Se on ihan must!
    It's a must!
DeclensionEdit
  • Not inflected.
SynonymsEdit

FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from English must.

NounEdit

must m (plural musts)

  1. (informal) that which is compulsory; an obligation; duty; must

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

must (plural mustok)

  1. must (sweet fresh grape juice that has not fermented yet)

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative must mustok
accusative mustot mustokat
dative mustnak mustoknak
instrumental musttal mustokkal
causal-final mustért mustokért
translative musttá mustokká
terminative mustig mustokig
essive-formal mustként mustokként
essive-modal
inessive mustban mustokban
superessive muston mustokon
adessive mustnál mustoknál
illative mustba mustokba
sublative mustra mustokra
allative musthoz mustokhoz
elative mustból mustokból
delative mustról mustokról
ablative musttól mustoktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
musté mustoké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
mustéi mustokéi
Possessive forms of must
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. mustom mustjaim
2nd person sing. mustod mustjaid
3rd person sing. mustja mustjai
1st person plural mustunk mustjaink
2nd person plural mustotok mustjaitok
3rd person plural mustjuk mustjaik

Further readingEdit

  • must in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.

LudianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *musta.

AdjectiveEdit

must

  1. black

RomanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin mustum, from Proto-Indo-European *mus-, *mews- (damp).

NounEdit

must n (plural musturi)

  1. unfermented wine; grape or other fruit juice
  2. must (of grapes)

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit


SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse muster, moster, from Latin mustum.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

must c (uncountable)

  1. A kind of soft drink, more commonly known as julmust
  2. Unfermented fruit juice

DeclensionEdit

Declension of must 
Uncountable
Indefinite Definite
Nominative must musten
Genitive musts mustens

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


VepsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *musta.

AdjectiveEdit

must

  1. black

InflectionEdit

Inflection of must
nominative sing. must
genitive sing. mustan
partitive sing. mustad
partitive plur. mustid
singular plural
nominative must mustad
accusative mustan mustad
genitive mustan mustiden
partitive mustad mustid
essive-instructive mustan mustin
translative mustaks mustikš
inessive mustas mustiš
elative mustaspäi mustišpäi
illative ? mustihe
adessive mustal mustil
ablative mustalpäi mustilpäi
allative mustale mustile
abessive mustata mustita
comitative mustanke mustidenke
prolative mustadme mustidme
approximative I mustanno mustidenno
approximative II mustannoks mustidennoks
egressive mustannopäi mustidennopäi
terminative I ? mustihesai
terminative II mustalesai mustilesai
terminative III mustassai
additive I ? mustihepäi
additive II mustalepäi mustilepäi

Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

must

  1. black

InflectionEdit

Inflection of must
nominative sing. must
genitive sing. mustan
partitive sing. mustad
partitive plur. mustid
singular plural
nominative must mustad
accusative mustan mustad
genitive mustan mustiden
partitive mustad mustid
essive-instructive mustan mustin
translative mustaks mustikš
inessive mustas mustiš
elative mustaspäi mustišpäi
illative ? mustihe
adessive mustal mustil
ablative mustalpäi mustilpäi
allative mustale mustile
abessive mustata mustita
comitative mustanke mustidenke
prolative mustadme mustidme
approximative I mustanno mustidenno
approximative II mustannoks mustidennoks
egressive mustannopäi mustidennopäi
terminative I ? mustihesai
terminative II mustalesai mustilesai
terminative III mustassai
additive I ? mustihepäi
additive II mustalepäi mustilepäi

ReferencesEdit

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007) , “чёрный”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

VolapükEdit

NounEdit

must (nominative plural musts)

  1. must (new wine; sweet cider)

DeclensionEdit


VõroEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *musta.

AdjectiveEdit

must (genitive musta, partitive musta)

  1. black (colour)

InflectionEdit