VietnameseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from . The reading fails to retain the final consonant in Middle Chinese (zyingH), which seems to be unique to Vietnamese (compare Mandarin (shèng), Cantonese (sing6, zing6), Japanese じょ () and Korean (seung)). The one that does, thặng, only occurs in the word thặng dư or colloquial adjective thượng thặng (first-degree, top-level). This failure to retain the final consonant also occurs for thừa below.

Haudricourt (1954) suggested that thừa is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (left over, extra, SV: ).[1]

AdjectiveEdit

thừa

  1. left over; superfluous
    Synonym:

AdverbEdit

thừa

  1. (only in fixed expressions) more than necessarily said
    thừa biết
    to know fully well; to be fully aware; to be the first one to acknowledge; to know, of all people

Etymology 2Edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

VerbEdit

thừa

  1. (only in fixed expressions) to take advantage of (an opportunity); to utilise; to avail oneself of
    thừa cơ
    to take one's chance; to take advantage of the current situation
    thừa thế
    to take advantage of the current situation
    thừa thắng
    to victoriously charge onward

Etymology 3Edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from

NounEdit

thừa

  1. (poetry, comics) shō

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ André-Georges Haudricourt. "Comment reconstruire le chinois archaïque", Word 10(2/3). 351–364 (1954). Reprinted (with additions) 1 in Problèmes de phonologie diachronique: 161-182. Translated in 2017 by Guillaume Jacques. draft