Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Unknown.[1][2][3] Variously compared to Proto-West Germanic *þrīstī (bold, daring),[4] Ancient Greek δριμύς (drimús, sharp; bitter)[1] and Old Church Slavonic дрѧхлъ (dręxlŭ, sad).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

trīstis (neuter trīste, comparative trīstior, superlative trīstissimus, adverb trīste); third-declension two-termination adjective

  1. sad, unhappy, melancholy, morose
    Synonyms: maestus, infēlīx, miser, aeger
    Antonyms: laetus, alacer, vīvus, fēlīx
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 5.315–316:
      excidit officium trīstī mihi. nūlla tuēbar
      rūra, nec in pretiō fertilis hortus erat.
      In sadness my duty was forgotten. I was guarding not
      the fields, neither was a fertile garden in value.
  2. sorrowful, mournful
  3. disagreeable, harsh, bitter (of taste)
  4. foul, offensive (of smell)

Declension edit

Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative trīstis trīste trīstēs trīstia
Genitive trīstis trīstium
Dative trīstī trīstibus
Accusative trīstem trīste trīstēs
Ablative trīstī trīstibus
Vocative trīstis trīste trīstēs trīstia

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

Reflexes of the late variant trīstus:

  • Balkan Romance:
    • Romanian: trist
  • North Italian:
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Insular Romance:

Unsorted borrowings:

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Walde, Alois, Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1954) “tristis”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), 3rd edition, volume II, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, page 706
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “trīstis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 630
  3. ^ Ernout, Alfred, Meillet, Antoine (1985) “trīstis, -e”, in Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: histoire des mots[1] (in French), 4th edition, with additions and corrections of Jacques André, Paris: Klincksieck, published 2001, page 703
  4. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) chapter 1092, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1092

Further reading edit

  • tristis”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • tristis”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • tristis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • tristis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) an evil omen; presage of ill: omen infaustum, triste