Latin edit

Etymology edit

Somewhat uncertain. The masculine nominative singular form is derived by syncope from alacris (attested in Ennius), which probably developed by dissimilation from earlier *alaklis,[1][2] with the ending ultimately going back to -*tlis, from Proto-Indo-European *-tl-, a variant of the zero-grade of the agent suffix *-tḗr. Compare volucer, volucris. However, De Vaan regards the origin of the *-kris ending as uncertain.[3] The *ala- portion is seemingly from a root of the form *h₂elH-.[2][3][4] De Vaan and Schrijver consider ambulō (to traverse, walk) a potential but not certain cognate, and reconstruct the common root (if the relationship is valid) as Proto-Indo-European *h₂elh₂- (to wander, roam), cognate with Ancient Greek ἀλάομαι (aláomai, roam).[3][4] The same root may alternatively be reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European *h₂el-. Another possible cognate is Ancient Greek ἐλαύνω (elaúnō, to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁elh₂- (to drive). Another theory connects the word to Proto-Germanic *aljaną (vigor, strength), whence English ellen.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

alacer (feminine alacris, neuter alacre, comparative alacrior); third-declension three-termination adjective

  1. lively, brisk, quick, eager, active, peppy, excited
    Synonyms: strēnuus, impiger, vīvus, ācer, fortis
    Antonym: sēgnis
  2. glad, happy, cheerful
    Synonyms: libēns, laetus, vīvus, felix, hilaris, hilarus
    Antonyms: trīstis, infelix, maestus, miser, aeger

Usage notes edit

The superlative form alacerrimus is very rare in old and classical Latin.

Declension edit

Third-declension three-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative alacer alacris alacre alacrēs alacria
Genitive alacris alacrium
Dative alacrī alacribus
Accusative alacrem alacre alacrēs alacria
Ablative alacrī alacribus
Vocative alacer alacris alacre alacrēs alacria

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  1. ^ Ranjan Sen (2015) Syllable and Segment in Latin, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 107
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[1], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, page 318
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “alacer”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 32
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 40

Further reading edit

  • alacer”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • alacer”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • alacer in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to show a brisk and cheerful spirit: alacri et erecto animo esse