turēt

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the same stem as tvert (to grasp, to grab), of which it was originally the iterative-durative form. (It is also possible that there was a semantically close verb *turt, from the same stem as tvert, with turēt being its iterative-durative form.) Cognates include Lithuanian turė́ti (to have; to holt, to need), Old Prussian turīt, turītwei (to have; to need).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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VerbEdit

turēt tr., 3rd conj., pres. turu, turi, tur, past turēju

  1. to hold (to keep something that was taken, grabbed, in a fixed position, e.g., in one's hands, lap, back, etc.)
    turēt sveci rokā — to hold the candle in (one's) hands
    turēt rokā fotoaparātu — to hold the camera in (one's) hands
    turēt grožus — to hold the reins
    turēt zobos — to hold (something) in (one's) teeth
    turēt klēpī grozu — to hold a basket in (one's) lap
    turēt uz rokas bērnu — to hold a child in (one's) hand(s)
    turēt uz muguras maisu — to hold a sack on (one's) back
    turēt padusē mapi — to hold a folder under one's arm
    viņš rokā turēja lielu, dzeltenu ādas čemodānu — he had (lit. held) a big, yellow leather suitcade in (his) hand(s)
  2. to hold (to not allow someone, something to move freely, to keep someone, something in its place, to force someone, something to not move)
    turēt pie rokas bērnu — to hold a child by the hand
    turēt kādu aiz rokas — to hold someone by the hand
    turēt aiz saites suni — to keep (lit. hold) a dog on a leash
    saulainās dienās viņš valkāja tikai īsas bikšeles, tās turēja pāri sīkajiem pleciem pārmestas lences — in sunny days he wore only shorts, held (in place) (by) straps (= suspenders) over his little shoulders
  3. (of bodies, their parts) to keep (to position the body in a certain way and to make it remain so)
    turēt ķermeni taisni — to keep (one's) body straight
    turēt rokas kabatās — to keep (one's) hands on (one's) pockets
    turēt acis vaļa — to keep (one's) eyes open
    neturēt muti vaļā — to not keep (one's) mouth open
    turēt ausis ciet — to keep (one's) ears closed (with one's hands)
  4. to keep, to hold (to make (someone, something) be or stay in some place, state or condition)
    turēt arestēto apsardzībā — to keep the arrested person in custody
    turēt aitas kūtī — to keep the sheep in the barn
    turēt govis pa nakti laukā — to keep the cows in the field overnight
    nebēdājieties, bez vajadzības slimnīcā neturēsim' — don't worry, we won't keep (him) in hospital without need
    zosis var turēt nelielos iežogojumos — geese can be kept in small enclosures
    nevar taču cilvēku turēt cietumā tikai tāpēc, ka viņš nespēj pierādīt, ka nav vainīgs — after all, one cannot keep a person in prison only because he cannot prove that he is not guilty
    visu ciemu viņi turēja zem ložmetēju uguns — he kept the whole village under machine gun fire
    krāsns netur siltumu — the oven doesn't keep the warmth (i.e., it doesn't keep the food inside warm for long if it is turned off)
  5. to keep, to hold (to make (something) be or stay for some time in a certain situation, condition, or place)
    turēt durvis atvērtas — to keep the door open
    turēt logus vaļa — to keep the window open
    turēt ieroci gatavībā — to keep (one's) weapon ready
    turēt produktus aukstumā — to keep the vegetables cold
    turēt telpas kārtībā — to keep the rooms in order, tidy
  6. to keep, to have (to make sure that some product is available)
    kāpēc jūs neturat savā veikalā līgavas tērpus? — why don't you keep bridal clothes in your shop?
    prece, kuru viņš turēja nebija no sliktākajām — the product(s) which he kept, had (in his shop) were not of the worst (kind)
  7. (in memory, in mind) to keep, to bear (to remember, to remain aware of something)
    kādu laiku turēju šo sarunu atmiņā — for a while I kept this conversation in (my) memory
    viņš bija turējis prātā līdzību, kurā stāstīts par saules un vētras derību — he had kept in mind the parable in which (one) tells about the bet between the sun and the storm
  8. to keep, to hold, to run, to have (to own (property), to manage, administer it, to take care of it)
    turēt lauku mājas — to keep, to have a farmhouse
    turēt akcijas — to hold, to have stocks
    turēt zosis — to keep, raise geese
    turēt terārijos rāpuļus — to keep reptiles in a terrarium
    pirms kara viņš bija turējis viesnīcu — before the war he had kept, run a hotel
    pirms kara saimnieks turējis kādas desmit piecpadsmit govis — before the war the famer (had) kept some ten, fifteen cows
  9. to keep (to hire, to employ, usually in one's farm, home)
    turēt kalponi, aukli — to keep a maid, a nanny
  10. to keep (to allow someone to stay, to live in one's home)
    Kate tika turēta nevis kā saimnieku audžu meita, bet itin kā kad būtu viņu pašu bērns — Kate was kept not as the landlord's foster daughter, but as if she were his own child
  11. (of vehicles) to keep, to hold (to cause to remain moving in a certain direction)
    turēt laivu vairāk pa labi — to keep the ship on the right
    turot kursu uz Rīgu, franču tvaikonis ātri attālināsholding course toward Rīga, the French steamer went quickly away
    “tā turēt!” atskan komanda no kapteiņa tiltiņa — “keep like that!” (= hold course, do not change direction), the command came from the captain's bridge
  12. (of people) to keep, to hold (to prevent from going away, from moving, acting freely)
    Ieva vēl gan turēja un turēja Trīni, kamēr galu galā tak atlaida — Ieva indeed kept holding (lit. held and held) Trīni, but in the end she let her go
    Kristaps gribēja apprecēties; nekas taču neturēja: abi brīvi cilvēki, arī mīlestība pietiekami pārbauditā grūtās dienās — Kristaps wanted to get married; nothing held/kept (= prevented) him (from it): both (were) free people, (and) their love had been sufficiently tested in difficult days
  13. (with savā varā) to keep in one's power (to limit someone's freedom of motion or action)
    es pazinu arī ķēniņmeitu, ko velns turēja savā varā un ko Arājdēlam vajadzēja atpestīt — I know also a princess whom the devil kept in his power and whom Arājdēls had to liberate
    večuka skatiens mani turēja savā varā — the old man's look kept me in his power
  14. (with an object and a predicate) to keep (someone, something) in a certain state or situation
    turēt kārtībā — to keep (something) in order, tidy
    tīri apģērbtus viņa turēja savus bērnus — she kept her children cleanly dressed (= in clean clothes)
    pavadoņu uztveršnas aparatūra turēs radiokontrolē praktiski visu zemeslodes virsmu — the satellite's reception engine will keep practically the entire surface of the earth under radio control
    karalis grib, lai viņa kalpus tur tā, ka tie neaizmirst drebēt — the king wants that his servants be kept so (= in such a way) that they don't forget (how to) tremble (= to be afraid)
  15. to keep, to hold (to link, to connect with something)
    visas lietas turēja citu pie citas kā piesietas desmit saitēm — all things were held together (lit. one by the other) like ten ropes tied (to each other)
    vienīga saite, kas viņu vēl turēja pie dzīves, bija Paulis — the only link that still kept him (connected to) life, was Paulis
  16. to keep, to hold, to keep up, to keep going (to be able to perform; to be able to cope, put up with something unpleasant)
    Jānim nebija veselības, nevarēja smago lauku darbu turēt — Jānis didn't have (good) health, he could not keep the heavy farm work
    tilta balsti neturēs ledus spiedienu — the fundament of the bridge will not hold the pressure of the ice
    darbs turpinājās līdz vēlam vakaram; Ojārs dūšīgi turēja līdz galam — work continued till late at night; Ojārs bravely held, kept
    drīz vien ilkss ir salabota: “nez vai turēs?” šaubīdamies ieminos... “turēs! tikpat kā jauna...” — soon the limb was repaired: “will it hold?” (he) asked doubtfully... “(yes), it will hold! just like new...”
  17. to keep, to hold (to prevent something undesirable from going through)
    vecās turpes neturēja mitrumu — the old shoes did not keep humidity (out)
    sienām vēsums velk cauri, un jumts labi lietu netur — the cold pulled through the walls, and the roof did not hold the rain well (= did not keep it out completely)
  18. to hold, to consider, to think of something, someone in a certain way
    turēt grāmatu par vajadzīgu — to hold the book to be important
    turēt darbu par pienākumu — to consider work as a duty
    turēt kaimiņu par zagli — to consider the neighbor a thief
    turēt (ko) zem sava goda — to consider (something) beneath one's honor (= to believe it not consistent with one's moral standards)
    kas tā bija par milzīgu naudu! par tik bagātu Mālnieku neviens neturēja — what an enormous amount of money! nobody had thought that Mālnieks was so rich
    turēdams cilvēkus labākus, nekā viņi tiesām ir, tapsi dažu labu reizi pievilts — (by) considering people to be better than they really are, one is often disappointed
  19. (of emotions, usually negative) to keep, to hold (to go on feeling, expressing it, generally for a long time)
    turēt dusmas (uz kādu) — to hold (= feel) anger (at someone)
    turēt naudu — to hold, keep hatred (= to go on hating)
    turēt rūpi (par kādu, par ko) — to worry (lit. keep worries) about someone, something
  20. (of laugh, tears) to hold, to control, to prevent
    šur tur kāds rīstījās, turēdams smieklus, dažs vairs nespēja valdīties un smējās, iespiedis muti spilvenā — here and there someone (= some people) choked, holding (their) laugh, some could not control themselves and laughed, pressing their mouths against the pillow(s)
  21. (of promises) to keep, to fulfill
    turēt solījumu, zvērestu — to keep a promise, an oath
  22. (dated) to keep, to take, to take part in, to participate
    Saleniek, jums ir jātur eksāmens uz otro klasi — Salenieks, you must hold (= take) the exam in the other class
    vienīgi māte, es un sētas suns turējam mājas sardzi — only mother, I and the fence dog kept guard (in the) house
  23. (dated) to hold, to speak, to pronounce
    turēt runu, sprediķi — to hold (= pronounce) a speech, a sermon
    turēt aizdomās (kādu) — to hold someone in suspicion (= to suspect someone)

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
  • aizturēt
  • apturēt
  • atturēt
  • ieturēt
  • izturēt
  • noturēt
  • paturēt
  • pārturēt
  • pieturēt
  • saturēt
  • uzturēt
other derived terms:
  • turēties
  • tureklis

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “turēt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 7 December 2013, at 01:15