Contents

ArmenianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Armenian երկաթ(erkatʿ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

երկաթ ‎(erkatʿ)

  1. iron
  2. (colloquial) any metal
  3. (colloquial) metallic object (not necessarily of iron)
    էս ի՞նչ էրկաթներ են ստեղ ցցված‎ ― ēs i?nčʿ ērkatʿner en steł cʿcʿvac ― what are these metallic things sticking out here?

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit


Old ArmenianEdit

EtymologyEdit

The origin is unclear.

Often connected with the reflexes of Proto-Georgian-Zan *rḳina-(iron) (compare especially Laz ერკინა(erḳina)) and Proto-Lezghian *req̇ʷ(iron), as well as with Albanian hékur, ekur(iron), but the nature of the relationship is unknown.

According to Schrader, the Armenian is borrowed from Georgian-Zan, the ending -աթ(-atʿ) developing under the analogical influence of արծաթ(arcatʿ, silver). Tomaschek and Bork too argue for a Georgian-Zan or Northeast Caucasian origin for Armenian.

Bugge 1889 proposes derivation from Proto-Indo-European [Term?] through an earlier form *երվաթ(*ervatʿ), with cognates in Old High German aruz, aruzzi, erizzi, German Erz(ore) and perhaps Sanskrit अरुण(aruṇa), अरुष(aruṣa, reddish). In 1893 he disavows this etymology and prefers the above Caucasian origin, adducing also Mansi аргин(argin), Eastern Mari вӱрге́не(vürgéne), Komi-Zyrian ыргӧн(yrgön, copper), Hungarian horgany(zinc) as borrowings from the same Caucasian source, but modern research explains these Uralic words otherwise.

Ačaṙean points to another group of superficially similar eastern Uralic words, namely Mansi кēр, Khanty карты(karty), курты(kurty), Udmurt корт(kort), Komi-Zyrian кӧрт(kört), Komi-Permyak кӧрт(kört), Eastern Mari кӹртни(kə̈rtni), Moksha кшни(kšni), Erzya кшни(kšni, iron), without committing to any solution. He rejects all of the above etymologies and leaves the origin open.

J̌ahukyan 1987 again connects Old Armenian երկաթ(erkatʿ) with the above Kartvelian and Northeast Caucasian words, assuming that all of these languages borrowed the word from some unknown language, perhaps Hurro-Urartian. He adds that the Uralic words for “iron” (Eastern Mari кӹртни(kə̈rtni) etc.) may have been borrowed from Proto-Armenian, if it is accepted that at some point on the way to their historical homeland Proto-Armenians had direct contacts with the Uralic tribes.

Olsen lists երկաթ(erkatʿ) among her words of unknown origin.

Finally, J̌ahukyan 2010 connects with երկին(erkin, sky), deriving both from Proto-Indo-European *d(i)w-, from *dyew-(to be bright; sky, heaven), the ending -աթ(-atʿ) developing under the analogical influence of արծաթ(arcatʿ, silver), explaining the connection between “sky” and “iron” by the the fact that iron meteorites were one of the earliest sources of usable iron available to humans. For the sound changes see երկու(erku). He adds that the Kartvelian words are probably borrowed from Old Armenian երկին(erkin, sky). For the association between “sky” and “iron” compare also Coptic ⲃⲉⲛⲓⲡⲉ(benipe, iron), which etymologically is from an Egyptian phrase meaning “metal of the heaven” (see Černý).

NounEdit

երկաթ ‎(erkatʿ)

  1. iron
    երկաթ կակուղ‎ ― erkatʿ kakuł ― soft, malleable iron
    երկաթ դիւրահերձ‎ ― erkatʿ diwraherj ― red-short iron, hot-short iron, red shear or sear iron
    երկաթ կալուանացեալ‎ ― erkatʿ kaluanacʿeal ― galvanized iron
    երկաթ կռանահար‎ ― erkatʿ kṙanahar ― forged, tilted, bar or malleable iron
    երկաթ հայելական‎ ― erkatʿ hayelakan ― specular, oligist iron, iron ore
    երկաթ հրաբեր‎ ― erkatʿ hraber ― pyrophoric iron
    երկաթ սպիտակ/թանագ‎ ― erkatʿ spitak/tʿanag ― plate, white iron, tinned iron plate, tin, tin plate
    երկաթ հնոտի‎ ― erkatʿ hnoti ― old iron
    կոտորք երկաթոյ‎ ― kotorkʿ erkatʿoy ― grape shot
    սայր երկաթոյ‎ ― sayr erkatʿoy ― tag
    վաճառական երկաթոյ‎ ― vačaṙakan erkatʿoy ― smith, blacksmith
    պատել երկաթով‎ ― patel erkatʿov ― to bind or mount with iron
    բազմախողխող երկաթ‎ ― bazmaxołxoł erkatʿ ― sharp
    երկաթի դար‎ ― erkatʿi dar ― iron age
    կռանել զերկաթ մինչ ատրաշէկն է‎ ― kṙanel zerkatʿ minčʿ atrašēkn ē ― to beat the iron while it is hot
  2. iron tool, iron weapon, sword, razor, nail
  3. (in the plural) fetters, irons, chains, gyves

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973), “երկաթ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, published 1926–1935, pages 58–60
  • Awetikʿean, G.; Siwrmēlean, X.; Awgerean, M. (1836–1837), “երկաթ”, in Nor baṙgirkʿ haykazean lezui [New Dictionary of the Armenian Language] (in Old Armenian), Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Bork, Ferdinand (1907) Beiträge zur Kaukasischen Sprachwissenschaft. T. 1. Kaukasische Miszellen (in German), Königsberg: R. Leupold, pages 18–19
  • Bugge, Sophus (1889), “Beiträge zur etymologischen Erläuterung der armenischen Sprache”, in Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania (in German), No. 4, Christiania, pages 14–15
  • Bugge, Sophus (1893), “Beiträge zur etymologischen Erläuterung der armenischen Sprache”, in Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (in German), volume 32, pages 83–84
  • Černý, Jaroslav (1976) Coptic Etymological Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, page 24
  • Erckert, Roderich von (1895) Die Sprachen des kaukasischen Stammes. I. Theil. Wörterverzeichniss (in German), Vienna: Alfred Hölder, § 103, page 57
  • J̌ahukyan, Geworg (1987) Hayocʿ lezvi patmutʿyun; naxagrayin žamanakašrǰan [History of the Armenian language: The Pre-Literary Period] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Academy Press, pages 265, 295, 436, 598, 612
  • J̌ahukyan, Geworg (2010), “երկաթ”, in Sargsyan, Vahan, editor, Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Asoghik, ISBN 978-9939-50-121-5, page 226b
  • Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 949
  • Petrosean, H. Matatʿeay V. (1879), “երկաթ”, in Nor Baṙagirkʿ Hay-Angliarēn [New Dictionary Armenian–English], Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Schrader, Otto (1890) Prehistoric antiquities of the Aryan peoples: a manual of comparative philology and the earliest culture, translated from the 2nd German edition by Frank Byron Jevons, London: Charles Griffin and Company, pages 203 and 210
  • Tomaschek, Wilhelm (1890), “Review of Bugge 1889”, in Deutsche Litteraturzeitung (in German), volume XI, issue 6, Berlin, column 197