See also: آسم, أسم, and أشم

Arabic

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Semitic *šim-, from Proto-Afroasiatic *sim- (name). Leveled in Arabic to the roots و س م (w-s-m) and س م و (s-m-w).

Cognate with Hebrew שם (shém).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ism/
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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اِسْم (ismm (plural أَسْمَاء (ʔasmāʔ) or أَسَامٍ (ʔasāmin))

  1. name
    مَا ٱسْمُكَ؟smuka?What is your name?
    بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِbismi allāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmiin the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate
    بِسْمِ ٱلْآبِ وَٱلِٱبْنِ وَٱلرُّوحِ ٱلْقُدُسِbismi l-ʔābi wal-ibni war-rūḥi l-qudusiIn the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost
  2. appellation
  3. reputation, prestige
  4. (grammar) noun (a category above, including pronouns and substantives like adjectives and participles, see the derived terms to get a picture of the usage)
Declension
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Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Cypriot Arabic: ism
  • Egyptian Arabic: إسم (ʔism)
  • Hijazi Arabic: اسم (isim)
  • Maltese: isem
  • Moroccan Arabic: اسم (ism)
  • Tunisian Arabic: اسم (ism)
  • Azerbaijani: ایسیم, isim (or via Persian)
  • Bashkir: исем (isem)
  • Kazakh: есім (esım)
  • Malay: اسم, isim
  • Classical Persian: اسم (ism) (see there for further descendants)
  • Swahili: isimu

Etymology 2

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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اُسْمُ (usmu) (form I)

  1. second-person masculine singular active imperative of سَمَا (samā)

Further reading

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  • Freytag, Georg (1833) “اسم”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[1] (in Latin), volume 2, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 359–360
  • Carter, Michael George (2017) “The Seven Deadly Sins of Arabic Studies”, in Manuel Sartori, Manuela E. B. Giolfo, Philippe Cassuto, editors, Approaches to the History and Dialectology of Arabic in Honor of Pierre Larcher (Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics; 88), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 519–521
  • Kasher, Almog (2009 October 1) “Term Ism in Medieval Arabic Grammatical Tradition: A Hyponym of Itself”, in Journal of Semitic Studies[2], Oxford Academix, retrieved 26 October 2018
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) “سم”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Azerbaijani

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Noun

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اسم (ism) (definite accusative اسمی, plural اسملر)

  1. Alternative spelling of ایسیم

Hijazi Arabic

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Etymology

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From Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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اسم (isimm (construct state اِسْم (ism), plural أسماء (ʔasmāʔ))

  1. name

Malay

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Etymology

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From Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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اسم (plural اسم-اسم or اسم۲, informal 1st possessive اسمکو, 2nd possessive اسممو, 3rd possessive اسمڽ)

  1. Jawi spelling of isim

Ottoman Turkish

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Etymology

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From Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Noun

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اسم (ism, isim) (plural اسملر)

  1. name
  2. (grammar) noun

Synonyms

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Descendants

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Persian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Pronunciation

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Readings
Classical reading? ism
Dari reading? ism
Iranian reading? esm
Tajik reading? ism

Noun

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Regional synonyms of "name"
Dari نام
Iranian Persian اسم
Tajik ном

اسم (esm) (plural اسم‌ها (esm-hâ) or اسامی (asâmi) or اَسْماء (asmâ(')))

  1. (especially Iran) name
    Synonym: نام (nâm)
    • 2024 April 30, “یک سند محرمانه از تعرض جنسی به نیکا شاکرمی و جزئیات قتل او به دست نیروهای امنیتی ایران پرده برداشت”, in bbc.com/persian[3], BBC Persian:
      این اسناد شامل اسامی قاتلان نیکا و فرماندهان ارشدی است که سعی کردند واقعیت این ماجرا را مخفی کنند.
      in asnâd šâmel-e asâmi-ye qâtelân-e nikâ va farmândehân-e aršâdi ast ke sa'y kardand vâqe'iyat-e in mâjarâ râ maxfi konand.
      These documents contain the names of Nika's murderers and the senior commanders who attempted to hide the truth behind the incident.
  2. appellation
    Synonym: نامیده (nâmide)
  3. (grammar) noun
    Hyponym: اسم خاص (esm-e xâs)

Usage notes

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  • (name): In Iran, نام is more common in formal speech but اسم is more common in informal speech. However, اسم can be used in formal contexts as well. In Dari and Tajik, اسم is not the common word for "name" at any level of formality.

Descendants

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South Levantine Arabic

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Root
و س م
1 term

Etymology

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From Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ʔism/, [ˈʔɪ.s(ɪ)m]
  • IPA(key): /ʔusm/, [ˈʔʊ.s(ʊ)m]
  • Audio (Jerusalem):(file)

Noun

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اسم (ʔism, ʔusmm (plural أسامي (ʔasāmi))

  1. name
    اسم العيلةʔism il-ʕēlesurname, family name
    Audio (Ramallah):(file)
    اسم الشخصʔism iš-šaḵṣfirst name
    Audio (Ramallah):(file)
    شو اسمك؟šu ʔismak?What's your name?
    شو الاسم الكريم؟šu l-ʔism il-karīm?What's your noble name?
  2. noun

Tunisian Arabic

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Etymology

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From Arabic اِسْم (ism).

Noun

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اسم (ʔismm

  1. name
    شسمك ؟
    šismik
    What's your name?
  2. noun
  3. title
    ما ختارش اسم باهي لكتابه
    mā ḵtāriš ʔism bāhi liktābu
    He didn't choose a good title for his book
  4. first name

Urdu

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Etymology 1

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Borrowed from Classical Persian اسم (ism), from Arabic اِسْم (ism), from Proto-Semitic *šim-.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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اِسْم (ismm (Hindi spelling इस्म)

  1. name, appellation, designation
  2. (grammar) noun, substantive
Synonyms
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Etymology 2

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Learned borrowing from Sanskrit असम (asama).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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اَسَم (asam) (Hindi spelling असम)

  1. unequal
  2. uneven
  3. dissimilar
  4. unusual

Further reading

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  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971) “اسم”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary‎, Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.