See also: شيand سی

TorwaliEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sanskrit सेतु (sétu), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sáytuš, from Proto-Indo-European *seih₂- (to bind). Compare Kalasha siw.

NounEdit

سے ()

  1. a bridge

UrduEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sauraseni Prakrit [Term?], from Sanskrit सहित (sahita, with; accompanying).

Sometimes also thought to be from Sanskrit सम (sama). Compare Braj सौं (sa͠u).

PronunciationEdit

PostpositionEdit

سے (se) Hindi spelling: से (se)

  1. indicates association or mutual dealing: by; with; to
    وہ روز اپنے پڑوسی سے لڑتا ہے۔‎‎
    vo roz apne paṛosī se laṛtā hai.
    He fights with his neighbor every day.
    میں نے اپنی ماں سے پوچھا۔‎‎
    ma͠i ne apnī mā̃ se pūchā.
    I asked mother.
  2. indicates a sense of removal or going: from
    1. indicates exiting or separation
      وہ گھر سے نکل کر ڈاک گھر چلا۔‎‎
      vo ghar se nikal kar ḍāk-ghar calā.
      He left from the house and went to the post office.
    2. indicates source, cause, reason
      یہ تلوار دو صدیوں پہلے لوہے سے بنایا گیا تھا۔‎‎
      ye talvār do sadiyõ pahle lohe se banāyā gayā thā.
      This sword was made from iron two centuries ago.
    3. indicates origin, beginning
      میں کراچی سے آیا ہوں۔‎‎
      ma͠i karācī se āyā hū̃.
      I've come here from Karachi.
      کل سے‎ ― kal sesince yesterday
  3. comparative postposition: than
    میں اُس سے ہوشیار ہوں۔‎‎
    ma͠i us se hośiyār hū̃.
    I'm smarter than him.
  4. indicates passage of time
    امی دیر سے یہاں بیٹھی ہوئی ہے۔‎‎
    ammī der se yahā̃ baiṭhī huī hai.
    Mom has been sitting here for a while.
  5. indicates means or agency
    اِس کپڑے کو پانی سے دھونا ہو گا۔‎‎
    is kapṛe ko pānī se dhonā ho gā.
    This cloth will have to be washed with water.
  6. indicates manner of doing; forms adverbs
    دھیان سے سنیں۔‎‎
    dhyān se sunẽ.
    Listen carefully.
    (literally, “Listen with attention.”)
    میں بہت مشکل سے امتحان پاس ہوا۔‎‎
    ma͠i bahut muśkil se imtahān pās huā.
    I passed the exam with great difficulty.

ReferencesEdit

  • Platts, John T. (1884) , “سے”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971) , “سے”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary (in Urdu), Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.