Wiktionary:Punjabi transliteration

These are the rules concerning transliteration in Punjabi entries.

Gurmukhi edit

Consonants edit

Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Trans. IPA
س s [s]
ہ h, ◌́, ◌̀ [ɦ], [◌́], [◌̀]*
ک k [k]
کھ kh [kʰ]
گ g [ɡ]
گھ gh [k◌̀], [◌́ɡ]*
ن٘ ṅ, ng [ŋ]
چ c [t͡ʃ]
چھ ch [t͡ʃʰ]
ج j [d͡ʒ]
جھ jh [t͡ʃ◌̀], [◌́d͡ʒ]*
نْج ñ, ny, nj [ɲ]
ٹ [ʈ]
ٹھ ṭh [ʈʰ]
ڈ [ɖ]
ڈھ ḍh [ʈ◌̀], [◌́ɖ]*
ݨ [ɳ]
ت t [t̪]
تھ th [t̪ʰ]
د d [d̪]
دھ dh [t̪◌̀], [◌́d̪]*
ن n [n]
پ p [p]
پھ ph [pʰ]
ب b [b]
بھ bh [p◌̀], [◌́b]*
م m [m]
ی y [j]
ر r [ɾ]
ل l [l]
و v, w [ʋ], [w]
ڑ [ɽ]

Nuqta edit

The nuqta () is used to represent some consonants, often as part of loanwords. The nuqta, however, is not necessarily written:

Gur. Sha. Trans. IPA
ਸ਼ ش ś [ʃ]
ਖ਼ خ x [x]
ਗ਼ غ ġ [ɣ]
ਜ਼ ز z [z]
ਫ਼ ف f [f]
ਕ਼ ق ‍q /q/, [k]
ਲ਼ [ɭ]

Vowels edit

Letter Diacritic Shahmukhi Trans. IPA
none اَ a [ə]
آ ā [äː]
ਿ اِ i [ɪ]
اِی ī [iː]
اُ u [ʊ]
اُو ū [uː]
اے e [e]
اَے ai [ɛ]
او o [o]
اَو au [ɔ]

Diacritics edit

  • The ṭippi () and bindi () indication nasal vowels and nasalization, respectively.
  • The addak () geminates the following consonant.
  • The halant () is rarely used to mark the suppression of the inherent vowel a.
  • The visarga () makes a voiceless h sound.

Shahmukhi edit

Alphabet edit

The Shahmukhi Script, in essence, is identical to the Urdu script. However, there have been attempts to represent the phonological differences between Urdu and Punjabi through modified consonants, which are mentioned here. Since there is no official transliteration standard for the Shahmukhi script, a modified version of the ALA-LC standard, for Urdu, has been used.

Shahmukhi Alphabet
Name Positional Forms Transliterations
Letter Transliteration Gurmukhi Final Medial Initial Isolated Gurmukhi IPA
الف alif ਅਲਿਫ਼ ـا ا variable
بے be ਬੇ ـب ـبـ بـ ب [b]
پے pe ਪੇ ـپ ـپـ پـ پ [p]
تے te ਤੇ ـت ـتـ تـ ت [t̪]
ٹے ṭe ਟੇ ـٹ ـٹـ ٹـ ٹ [ʈ]
ثے s̱e ਸੇ ـث ـثـ ثـ ث [s]
جیم jīm ਜੀਮ ـج ـجـ جـ ج [dʒ]
چے ce ਚੇ ـچ ـچـ چـ چ [tʃ]
وڈی حے waḍḍi ḥe ਵੱਡੀ ਹੇ ـح ـحـ حـ ح [ɦ]
خے xe ਖ਼ੇ ـخ ـخـ خـ خ ਖ਼ [x]
دال dāl ਦਾਲ ـد د [d̪]
ڈال ḍāl ਡਾਲ ـڈ ڈ [ɖ]
ذال ẕāl ਜ਼ਾਲ ـذ ذ ਜ਼ [z]
رے re ਰੇ ـر ر [ɾ]
ڑے ṛe ੜੇ ـڑ ڑ [ɽ]
زے ze ਜ਼ੇ ـز ز ਜ਼ [z]
ژے že - ـژ ژ - [ʒ]
سین sīn ਸੀਨ ـس ـسـ سـ س [s]
شین śīn ਸ਼ੀਨ ـش ـشـ شـ ش ਸ਼ [ʃ]
صعاد ṣuʻād ਸੁਆਦ ـص ـصـ صـ ص [s]
ضعاد ẓuʻād ਜ਼ੁਆਦ ـض ـضـ ضـ ض ਜ਼ [z]
طوئے t̤oʼē ਤੋਏ ـط ـطـ طـ ط [t̪]
ظوئے z̤oʼē ਜ਼ੋਏ ـظ ـظـ ظـ ظ ਜ਼ [z]
عین ʻain ਐਨ ـع ـعـ عـ ع variable
غین ġain ਗ਼ੈਨ ـغ ـغـ غـ غ ਗ਼ [ɣ]
فے fe ਫ਼ੇ ـف ـفـ فـ ف ਫ਼ [f]
قاف qāf ਕ਼ਾਫ਼ ـق ـقـ قـ ق ਕ਼ /q/,[k]
کاف kāf ਕਾਫ਼ ـک ـکـ کـ ک [k]
گاف gāf ਗਾਫ਼ ـگ ـگـ گـ گ [g]
لام lām ਲਾਮ ـل ـلـ لـ / لا ل [l], [ɭ]
ࣇام ḷām ਲ਼ਾਮ ـࣇ ـࣇـ ࣇـ / ࣇا ਲ਼ [ɭ]
میم mīm ਮੀਮ ـم ـمـ مـ م [m]
نون nūn ਨੂਨ ـن ـنـ نـ ن [n] ([ɳ], [ɲ], [ŋ])
ݨون ṇūn ਣੂਨ ـݨ ـݨـ ݨـ ݨ [ɳ]
نون غنہ nūn ġunnah ਨੂਨ ਗ਼ੁੰਨਾ ـں ـن٘ـ ن٘ـ ں / [◌̃], [ŋ], [ɲ]
واؤ vā'ō ਵਾਓ ـو و variable
نکی ہے nikkī he ਨਿੱਕੀ ਹੇ ـہ ـہـ ہـ ہ [ɦ], [h], [◌́], [◌̀]
دو چشمے ہے do ćaśme he ਦੋ ਚਸ਼ਮੇ ਹੇ ـھ ـھـ ھـ ھ variable [◌́], [◌̀], [◌ʰ], [◌ʱ]
ہمزہ hamza ਹਮਜ਼ਾ ء - [ʔ] or silent
نکی یے nikkī ye ਨਿੱਕੀ ਯੇ ـی ـیـ یـ ی variable
وڈی یے waḍḍi ye ਵੱਡੀ ਯੇ ـے N/A ے variable

Aspirates edit

Letters in Shahmukhi are aspirated by adding a 'do-caśme-he' (ھ) to the preceding letter, for instance بھ (bh/ਭ) is a compound of ب (b/ਬ) + ھ (h). In Gurmukhi, it may be represented as ੍ਹ in a minority of words. Diacritics only go on the letters before or after the aspirate.

Hamzah edit

Diacritics edit

In the Shahmukhi script, the tradition of not writing diacritics, as followed in Arabic and Persian, has been preserved and is only used to remove ambiguity. Hence, the reader is required to interpret the correct meaning using context.

This can be especially tricky for vowels which represent different sounds depending on the diacritic used or implied before it.

In the Shahmukhi Script, there are 7 diacritics used.

Shahmukhi Diacritics
Symbol Name
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Latin IPA Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Latin
◌َ (no equivalent except ) a [ə] زَبَر ਜ਼ਬਰ zabar
◌ِ ਿ i [ɪ] زیر ਜ਼ੇਰ zer
◌ُ u [ʊ] پیش ਪੇਸ਼ peś
(on the letter)

(before the letter)
- [ː] تَشْدِید ਤਸ਼ਦੀਦ taśdīd
◌ْ - [.] جَزْم ਜਜ਼ਮ jazm
◌٘ n [ŋ],


نُون غُنَّہ ਨੂਨ ਗ਼ੁੰਨਾ nūn ġunnah
◌ً ਅਨ an [ən] تَنْوِین ਤਨਵੀਨ tanvīn

Vowels edit

Numerals edit

Shahmukhi numerals are the same as Urdu numerals, which are modified Perso-Arabic numerals.

Users' devices will need to support the Nastaliq font to view the proper numerals as the characters themselves are Persian numerals.

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Shahmukhi ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹