English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms edit

  • bye (archaic for preposition and adverb, not used for abbreviation, preferred for noun and interjection)

Etymology edit

From Middle English by, bi, from Old English (by; near; around), from Proto-West Germanic *bī, from Proto-Germanic *bi (near; by; around; about), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi.

Cognate with West Frisian by (by; near), Afrikaans by (at; by; near), Saterland Frisian bie (near; by), Dutch bij (near; by), German Low German bi (by; near; at), German bei (by; near; at).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

by

  1. Near or next to.
    The mailbox is by the bus stop.
  2. From one side of something to the other, passing close by; past.
    The stream runs by our back door.
    He ran straight by me.
  3. Not later than (the given time); not later than the end of (the given time interval).
    Be back by ten o'clock!.
    We'll find someone by the end of March.
    We will send it by the first week of July.
  4. Indicates the person or thing that does or causes something: Through the action or presence of.
    1. Following a passive verb.
      The matter was decided by the chairman.
      The boat was swamped by the water.
      He was protected by his body armour.
      • 2011 September 28, Jon Smith, “Valencia 1-1 Chelsea”, in BBC Sport:
        Valencia threatened sporadically in the first half with Miguel having a decent effort deflected wide by Ashley Cole, while Jordi Alba's near-post cross was flicked into the sidenetting by Pablo Hernandez.
    2. Following a noun.
      There was a call by the unions for a 30% pay rise.
    3. (not in common modern use) Following an adjective.
      I was aghast by what I saw.
      • 1874, Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd, 2005 Barnes & Noble Classics publication of 1912 Wessex edition, p.109:
        In other directions the fields and sky were so much of one colour by the snow that it was difficult in a hasty glance to tell whereabouts the horizon occurred [].
  5. Indicates the creator of a work: Existing through the authorship etc. of.
    There are many well-known plays by William Shakespeare
  6. Indicates a means of achieving something: Involving/using the means of.
    I avoided the guards by moving only when they weren't looking.
    By Pythagoras' theorem, we can calculate the length of the hypotenuse.
    We went by bus.
    I discovered it by chance.
    By 'maybe' she means 'no'.
    The electricity was cut off, so we had to read by candlelight.
    • 1909, Archibald Marshall [pseudonym; Arthur Hammond Marshall], chapter II, in The Squire’s Daughter, New York, N.Y.: Dodd, Mead and Company, published 1919, →OCLC:
      "I don't want to spoil any comparison you are going to make," said Jim, "but I was at Winchester and New College." ¶ "That will do," said Mackenzie. "I was dragged up at the workhouse school till I was twelve. Then I ran away and sold papers in the streets, and anything else that I could pick up a few coppers by—except steal. []"
    • 1945, Neva L. Boyd, Handbook of Recreational Games, Dover, published 1975, →ISBN, page 16:
      Players: Can we get there by candlelight? ¶ Gatekeepers: Yes and back again.
    • 1960, Dr. Seuss, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish:
      By the light of the moon, / by the light of a star / they walked all night
  7. Indicates an authority according to which something is done.
    By the power vested in me, I now pronounce you man and wife.
    1. Invokes an authority in an oath.
      By Jove! I think she's got it!
      By all that is holy, I'll put an end to this.
  8. Indicates a means of classification or organisation.
    I sorted the items by category.
    Table 1 shows details of our employees broken down by sex and age.
  9. Indicates the amount of change, difference or discrepancy
    Our stock is up by ten percent.
    His date of birth was wrong by ten years.
  10. In the formulae X by X and by Xs, indicates a steady progression, one X after another.
    We went through the book page by page.
    We crawled forward by inches.
  11. (with the) Acted on in units of the specified size or measure. (Sometimes hyperbolically)
    sold by the yard; cheaper if bought by the gross
    He drinks brandy by the bucketful!
  12. per; with or in proportion to each.
    His health was deteriorating by the day.
    The pickers are paid by the bushel.
  13. Indicates a referenced source: According to.
    He cheated by his own admission.
    By my reckoning, we should be nearly there.
    • 1722, William Wollaston, “Sect. V. Truths relating to the Deity. Of his exiſtence, perfection, providence, &c.”, in The Religion of Nature Delineated[1], page 81:
      Ignorant and ſuperſtitious wretches meaſure the actions of letterd and philoſophical men by the tattle of their nurſes or illiterate parents and companions, or by the faſhion of the country : and people of differing religions judge and condemn each other by their own tenents ; when both of them cannot be in the right, and it is well if either of them are.
  14. Used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something.
    It is easy to invert a 2-by-2 matrix.
    The room was about 4 foot by 6 foot.
    The bricks used to build the wall measured 10 by 20 by 30 cm.
  15. (horse breeding) Designates a horse's male parent (sire); cf. out of.
    She's a lovely little filly, by Big Lad, out of Damsel in Distress.

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Mandarin: by (bāi), BY (bāi)

Translations edit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adverb edit

by (not comparable)

  1. Along a path which runs past the speaker.
    I watched as it passed by.
  2. In the vicinity, near.
    There was a shepherd close by.
  3. To or at a place, as a residence or place of business.
    I'll stop by on my way home from work.
    We're right near the lifeguard station. Come by before you leave.
  4. (uncommon) aside, away
    The women spent much time after harvest putting jams by for winter and spring.

Derived terms edit

terms derived from by (adverb)

Translations edit

Adjective edit

by (not comparable)

  1. Out of the way, off to one side.
    a by path, a by room
  2. Subsidiary, incidental.
    by catch, a by issue

Usage notes edit

More usually in compounds, either hyphenated (e.g. by-product) or closed (e.g. byproduct); see also by-.

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Noun edit

by (plural bys)

  1. Alternative form of bye.

Interjection edit

by

  1. Dated form of bye (goodbye).

Anagrams edit

Afrikaans edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Dutch bij, from Middle Dutch bi, from Old Dutch .

Preposition edit

by

  1. at
  2. to
  3. by
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Dutch bij, from Middle Dutch bie, from Old Dutch *bīa.

Noun edit

by (plural bye)

  1. bee
Derived terms edit

Chinese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Semantic shift from English by.

Pronunciation edit


Preposition edit

by

  1. (Taiwan, informal) according to
    by現任立委本人 [MSC, trad.]
    by现任立委本人 [MSC, simp.]
    bāi mǒu xiànrèn lìwěi běnrén suǒ shuō [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Czech by, from Proto-Slavic *by.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

by

  1. third-person singular conditional subjunctive of být; would
    Vstával by dřív, ale to by si napřed musel koupit budík.
    He would be getting up earlier, but then he would have to buy an alarm clock first.
  2. (clipping, informal); would
    Byl by tam šel, kdyby mě byli pozvali.
    I would have gone there if they had invited me.
    My by tam šli, kdyby nás byli pozvali.
    We would have gone there if they had invited us.

Usage notes edit

  • In formal language, it is used for the third person of the infinitive být, both singular and plural and with the second person of the verb být.
    Zahrál by sis jednu hru?Would you [like to] play one game?
  • In colloquial Czech, by is commonly used in place of other conditional forms of být in both singular and plural if the subject is deducible from context (from the conjugated form of the verb). That is, by is a shared shorthand for bych, bys, bychom and byste.

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

  • by in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • by in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse býr, bœr (settlement).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

by c (singular definite byen, plural indefinite byer)

  1. town, city

Declension edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from English by.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

by(バイ) (bai

  1. (informal) Used to sign off a message/attribute a text.

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *by (third-person singular aorist of *byti)

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

by (defective, invariable)

  1. would (used with the past active participle to form a conditional)
    Njecynimy to, dokulaž by jim škóźeło.
    We don’t do that because it would hurt them.

Usage notes edit

This verb may be omitted before the past active participles of móc (be able to), kśěś (want to), and dejaś (ought to).

Derived terms edit

  • aby (that...would)
  • gaby (if...would)
  • gdyby (if...would)
  • njeby (would not)

Further reading edit

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “by”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “by”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Manx edit

Alternative forms edit

Particle edit

by (triggers lenition)

  1. past/conditional of s'
    By vie lhiam goll myrgeddin.
    I want to go as well.
    B'laik lhiam briaght jiu c'red bare lhiu jannoo jiu.
    I'd like to ask you what you'd prefer to do today.
  2. (dated) Past and conditional form of s' (used to introduce the comparative and superlative form of adjectives)
    yn dooinney by hrosheythe man who was the strongest

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old English , from Proto-West Germanic *bī, from Proto-Germanic *bi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /biː/, (unstressed) /bi/

Preposition edit

by

  1. by
    • 1407, The Testimony of William Thorpe, pages 40–41:
      And I seide, “Ser, in his tyme maister Ioon Wiclef was holden of ful many men the grettis clerk that thei knewen lyuynge vpon erthe. And therwith he was named, as I gesse worthili, a passing reuli man and an innocent in al his lyuynge. And herfore grete men of kunnynge and other also drowen myche to him, and comownede ofte with him. And thei sauouriden so his loore that thei wroten it bisili and enforsiden hem to rulen hem theraftir… Maister Ion Aston taughte and wroot acordingli and ful bisili, where and whanne and to whom he myghte, and he vsid it himsilf, I gesse, right perfyghtli vnto his lyues eende. Also Filip of Repintoun whilis he was a chanoun of Leycetre, Nycol Herforde, dane Geffrey of Pikeringe, monke of Biland and a maistir dyuynyte, and Ioon Purueye, and manye other whiche weren holden rightwise men and prudent, taughten and wroten bisili this forseide lore of Wiclef, and conformeden hem therto. And with alle these men I was ofte homli and I comownede with hem long tyme and fele, and so bifore alle othir men I chees wilfulli to be enformed bi hem and of hem, and speciali of Wiclef himsilf, as of the moost vertuous and goodlich wise man that I herde of owhere either knew. And herfore of Wicleef speciali and of these men I toke the lore whiche I haue taughte and purpose to lyue aftir, if God wole, to my lyues ende.”
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
Related terms edit
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

by

  1. Alternative form of been (to be)

Norwegian Bokmål edit

 
Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse býr (place (to camp or settle), land, property, lot; and later settlement).

Noun edit

by m (definite singular byen, indefinite plural byer, definite plural byene)

  1. town, city (regardless of population size or land area)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From byde, from Old Norse bjóða, from Proto-Germanic *beudaną (to offer), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewdʰ- (to wake, rise up).

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

by (imperative by, present tense byr, simple past bød or bøy or bydde, past participle budt or bydd)

  1. to bid; offer
  2. to ask; invite
  3. to command; order

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse býr m, from Proto-Germanic *būwiz. Doublet of .

Noun edit

by m (definite singular byen, indefinite plural byar, definite plural byane)

  1. town, city (regardless of population size or land area)
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse bjóða, from Proto-Germanic *beudaną (to offer), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewdʰ- (to wake, rise up). Akin to English bid.

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

by (present tense byr, past tense baud or bydde, supine bode or bydd or bydt, past participle boden or bydd, present participle bydande, imperative by)

  1. to command, order
    Eg byd deg å stoppe.
    I command you to stop.
  2. to bid, offer
    Eg byd deg 100 kroner.
    I offer you a 100 NOK.
  3. to offer
    Bestemor baud på småkaker.
    Granny offered us cookies.
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

References edit

  • “by” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • by” in The Ordnett Dictionary

Old Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *by.

Conjunction edit

by

  1. second/third-person singular aorist of býti
    Synonym:
  2. Introduces a clause two which the speaker has reservations or uncertainty.
  3. Especially with a negated verb; expresses concern.
  4. Introduces a clause of intention; in order to; would that
  5. Especially after a negated verb; expresses that the viewer sees something as unrealistic.
  6. Forms a conditional; would
  7. Admissive; albeit, although

Descendants edit

References edit

Old Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *by. First attested in the 14th century.

Conjunction edit

by

  1. introduces a clause of aim; to, so that, in order to
    • 1939 [end of the 14th century], Ryszard Ganszyniec, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Kubica, Ludwik Bernacki, editors, Psałterz florjański łacińsko-polsko-niemiecki [Latin-Polish-German Florian Psalter]‎[5], Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, z zasiłkiem Sejmu Śląskiego [The Ossoliński National Institute: with the benefit of the Silesian Parliament], pages 9, 31:
      Grzeszni... godzi, bi vlapil vbogego (insidiatur, ut rapiat pauperem)
      [Grzeszny... godzi, by ułapił ubogiego (insidiatur, ut rapiat pauperem)]
    • 1887, 1889 [1395], Józef Lekszycki, editor, Die ältesten großpolnischen Grodbücher, volume II, number 1773:
      Orandowal i[e]szm do gich domv, by penødze brali
      [Orędował j[e]śm do jich domu, by pieniądze brali]
  2. introduces a command; to
    • 1447, Dekalog - Dziesięcioro przykazań bożych - Decem praecepta Dei, volume III, page 2:
      Pamyantay, tobe vyele, by czczil suato y nyedzela
      [Pamiętaj, tobie wielę, by czcił święto i niedzielę]
    • 1861 [1398], Pismo poświęcone naukom, sztukom i przemysłowi[6], volume III, Biblioteka Warszawska, page 34:
      Micolay prosil prze bok, by mu othpustil przisi[an]gą
      [Mikołaj prosił prze Bog, by mu otpuścił przysi[ę]gę]
    • 1892 [1484], Hieronim Łopaciński, editor, Reguła trzeciego zakonu św. Franciszka i drobniejsze zabytki języka polskiego z końca w. XV i początku XVI[7], page 721:
      Nye chczemy, by tho zgromadzenye navyedzal... kthory lagyk (nolumus tamen congregationem huiusmodi a laico visitari)
      [Nie chcemy, by to zgromadzenie nawiedzał... ktory lajik (nolumus tamen congregationem huiusmodi a laico visitari)]
  3. introduces a clarifying clause; to
    • 1888 [1401], Romuald Hube, editor, Zbiór rot przysiąg sądowych poznańskich, kościańskich, kaliskich, sieradzkich, piotrkowskich i dobrzyszyckich z końca wieku XIV i pierwszych lat wieku XV[8], page 109:
      Sczepan zalowal, bi Przibkowa dzewka mu pancz grziwen wcradla
      [Szczepan żałował, by Przybkowa dziewka mu pięć grzywien ukradła]
  4. introduces clauses of emotions; to
    • 1874-1891 [Middle of the fifteenth century], Rozprawy i Sprawozdania z Posiedzeń Wydziału Filologicznego Akademii Umiejętności, volume XXII, page 235:
      Boymisch syą, bichom pichą krolewstwa nyebyeskyego ny straczily
      [Bojmyż się, bychom pychą krolewstwa niebieskiego ni stracili]
    • Middle of the 15th century, Rozmyślanie o żywocie Pana Jezusa[9], page 610:
      Byli krzywi, bo im był przykazał, aby nie spali; a kiedy przyszedł a oni śpią, pochwacili sie ze snu..., bo im było żal i srom, by jego pośledniej kaźni nie mogli popełnić
      [Byli krzywi, bo im był przykazał, aby nie spali. A kiedy przyszedł, a oni śpią, pochwacili sie ze snu..., bo im było żal i srom, by jego pośledniej kaźni nie mogli popełnić]
  5. introduces a subjective clause; in order to
  6. introduces an attributive clause; in order to
    • 1887, 1889 [1399], Józef Lekszycki, editor, Die ältesten großpolnischen Grodbücher, volume II, number 1376:
      Micol[ay] s Wawrzincem ne vmawal nigednei vmo[wi], bi meli pusczicz na przyaczele
      [Mikoł[aj] z Wawrzyńcem nie umawiał nijednej umo[wy], by mieli puścić na przyjaciele]
  7. introduces a clausal clause; in order to
  8. introduces an unreal conditional clause; if
    • 1939 [end of the 14th century], Ryszard Ganszyniec, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Kubica, Ludwik Bernacki, editors, Psałterz florjański łacińsko-polsko-niemiecki [Latin-Polish-German Florian Psalter]‎[11], Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, z zasiłkiem Sejmu Śląskiego [The Ossoliński National Institute: with the benefit of the Silesian Parliament], pages 93, 17:
      Bo by bog ne podpomogl me, przes mala przebiwalabi bila w pekle dusza moia (nisi quia dominus adiuvit me, paulo minus habitasset in inferno anima mea)
      [Bo by Bog nie podpomogł mie, przez mała przebywałaby była w piekle dusza moja (nisi quia Dominus adiuvit me, paulo minus habitasset in inferno anima mea)]
  9. admissive; albeit, although
    • 1895 [1448–1450], Franciszek Piekosiński, editor, Tłumaczenia polskie statutów ziemskich, Kodeks Świętosławów, page 63:
      (Pothkomorze wszącz ma)... dwa rydla a nye wyączey, by tesz dwye alybo trzy dzedzyny myedzy dwyema granyczyl (etiamsi duas aut tres hereditates inter duos limitaret)
      [(Podkomorze wziąć ma)... dwa rydla, a nie więcej, by też dwie alibo trzy dziedziny miedzy dwiema graniczył (etiamsi duas aut tres hereditates inter duos limitaret)]

Particle edit

by

  1. expresses optative meaning; if only, had better, let
    • 1939 [end of the 14th century], Ryszard Ganszyniec, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Kubica, Ludwik Bernacki, editors, Psałterz florjański łacińsko-polsko-niemiecki [Latin-Polish-German Florian Psalter]‎[12], Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, z zasiłkiem Sejmu Śląskiego [The Ossoliński National Institute: with the benefit of the Silesian Parliament], pages 27, 1:
      Bosze moy, ne milczy ote mne, bi negdi ne milczal ote mne (deus meus, ne sileas a me, ne quando taceas a me)
      [Boże moj, nie milczy ote mnie, by niegdy nie milczał ote mnie (Deus meus, ne sileas a me, ne quando taceas a me)]
Descendants edit
  • Masurian: bi
  • Polish: by
  • Silesian: by

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb edit

by

  1. third-person singular aorist of być
  2. second-person singular aorist of być

References edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish by.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

by

  1. forms the conditional mood; would, would've
    On by tam nie poszedł./On nie poszedłby tam.He would not go there.

Conjunction edit

by

  1. creates a subordinate clause expressing desire or wish; to, so that, for that, in order to [+past tense]
    Synonyms: aby, ażeby, żeby
  2. creates an optative clause; if only, had better, let [+past tense]
    Near-synonyms: bodaj, bodajby, byle, byleby, niech, niechaj, niechajże, niechby, niechże, oby
  3. creates a subordinate clause expressing aim or purpose, one's goal; to, so that, for that, in order to [+infinitive]
    Synonyms: aby, ażeby, żeby
  4. creates a subordinate clause in which one states the possibility of something depends on something else; to, so that, for that, in order to [+infinitive]
    Synonyms: aby, ażeby, żeby
  5. introduces a subordinate clause relating a following event with a previous one that is not caused by the first event; just to, only to [+infinitive]
    Synonyms: aby, ażeby
  6. introduces a subordinate clause expression doubt; if
    Synonyms: ażeby, żeby

Declension edit

Trivia edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), by is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 20 times in scientific texts, 5 times in news, 64 times in essays, 88 times in fiction, and 172 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 349 times, making it the 144th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References edit

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “by”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 39

Further reading edit

  • by in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • by in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “by”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • BY”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 2022 September 19
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “by”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “by”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “by”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 242

Scots edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English by, from Old English bi, from Proto-West Germanic *bī. Cognates include English by and Yola bee.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

by

  1. by
  2. (in comparisons) than
    • 1894, Robert Hunter, A Treatise on the Law of Landlord and Tenant:
      Archie was auld by me.
      Archie was older than me.
      (literally, “Archie was old by me.”)

Adverb edit

by

  1. by, nearby

Conjunction edit

by

  1. by (the time that)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 by, prep., adv., conj..” in the Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Language Dictionaries.

Silesian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish by.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɨ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: by

Particle edit

by

  1. forms the conditional mood; would, would've

Conjunction edit

by

  1. in order to, so that
    Synonyms: aby, ażby, coby, iżeby, żeby

Declension edit

Related terms edit

suffix

Further reading edit

  • by in silling.org

Swedish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Swedish bȳr, (village, farm, town), from Old Norse býr. Cognate with Danish by (“town, city”, whence also Faroese býur with the same meaning), Norwegian Bokmål by (town, city) and Norwegian Nynorsk by (town, city).

Noun edit

by c

  1. hamlet
  2. village
  3. (obsolete) farm
  4. (obsolete) town, city
  5. (slang, in the definite "byn") Rinkeby
Declension edit
Declension of by 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative by byn byar byarna
Genitive bys byns byars byarnas
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Dutch bui or Low German , böe, böje. Cognate with Danish byge, Norwegian Bokmål byge, bøye and Norwegian Nynorsk bye, bøye.

Noun edit

by c

  1. gust, rush of wind
Declension edit
Declension of by 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative by byn byar byarna
Genitive bys byns byars byarnas
Derived terms edit

References edit

Upper Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɨ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: by

Verb edit

by

  1. second/third-person singular conditional of być

West Frisian edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

by

  1. near to
  2. in relation to
    By âlds
    In the olden days

Further reading edit

  • by”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Yola edit

Preposition edit

by

  1. Alternative form of bee (by)
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 3, page 84:
      At by mizluck was ee-pit t'drive in.
      Who by misluck was placed to drive in.
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 6, page 86:
      Many a bra draught by Tommeen was ee-maate;
      Many a brave stroke by Tommy was made;

References edit

  • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867