See also: , , स़, सु-, and स-

AhiraniEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare Gujarati છે (che).

VerbEdit

से (se)

  1. third-person singular present of होवानं (hovāna, to be)

ReferencesEdit

  • Dr. Ramesh Sitaram Suryawanshi (1997) , “archive.org”, in Ahirani Boli Shabdkosh, Pune: Akshaya Prakashan

Bodo (India)Edit

NumeralEdit

से (se) (Latin script se)

  1. one

HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Uncertain. Several etymologies are proposed and a merger of some or all of them is likely.[1]

PronunciationEdit

PostpositionEdit

से (se) (Urdu spelling سے‎)

  1. indicates association or mutual dealing; comitative case: by; with; to
    वह रोज़ अपने पड़ोसी से लड़ता है।
    vah roz apne paṛosī se laṛtā hai.
    He fights with his neighbor every day.
  2. indicates a sense of removal or going; ablative case: from
    1. indicates exiting or separation
      वह घर से निकलके डाक-घर चला।
      vah ghar se nikalke ḍāk-ghar calā.
      He left from the house and went to the post office.
    2. indicates source, cause, reason
      यह तलवार दो सदियों पहले लोहे से बनाया गया था।
      yah talvār do sadiyõ pahle lohe se banāyā gayā thā.
      This sword was made from iron two centuries ago.
      वह परेशानी से रोने लगा।vah pareśānī se rone lagā.He started to cry from anxiety.
      मैंने अपनी माँ से पूछा।mainne apnī mā̃ se pūchā.I asked my mother.
    3. indicates origin, beginning
      मैं चेन्नई से आया हूँ।ma͠i cennaī se āyā hū̃.I've come here from Chennai.
      यहाँ से वहाँ तकyahā̃ se vahā̃ takfrom here to there
      कल सेkal sesince yesterday
    4. comparative postposition: than
      मैं उससे होशियार हूँ।ma͠i usse hośiyār hū̃.I'm smarter than him.
      केला इससे मीठा होना चाहिए।
      kelā isse mīṭhā honā cāhie.
      Bananas should be sweeter than this.
    5. indicates passage of time
      मम्मा देर से यहाँ बैठी हुई है।
      mammā der se yahā̃ baiṭhī huī hai.
      Mom has been sitting here for a while.
  3. indicates means or agency; instrumental case
    चाकू से प्याज़ काटो और फिर कटोरी में डलो।
    cākū se pyāz kāṭo aur phir kaṭorī mẽ ḍalo.
    Cut some onions using the knife and then put them in the bowl.
    इस कपड़े को पानी से धोना होगा।
    is kapṛe ko pānī se dhonā hogā.
    This cloth will have to be washed with water.
    1. indicates manner of doing; forms adverbs
      ध्यान से सुनो।dhyān se suno.Listen carefully. (literally, “Listen with attention.”)
      मैं बहुत मुश्किल से परीक्षा/इम्तहान पास हुआ।
      ma͠i bahut muśkil se parīkṣā/imtahān pās huā.
      I passed the exam with great difficulty.
      ग़लती सेġaltī seaccidentally

Usage notesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reinöhl, Uta (2016) , “The diverse origins of the Hindi simple postpositions”, in Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) , “samá1 (13173)”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Jaroslav Strnad (2013) Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī : Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr Vānī Poems From Rājasthān (Brill's Indological Library; 45), Leiden, OCLC 853683653
  4. ^ Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) , “sahita (13310)”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Further readingEdit

  • McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1993) , “से”, in The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, London: Oxford University Press
  • Omkar N. Koul (2008) Modern Hindi Grammar, Dunwoody Press, →ISBN
  • Platts, John T. (1884) , “से”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.