عيسى

See also: عیسی‎, عیسیٰ, and عيشي

ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

The form is first unambiguously attested in the Qur'an and is of uncertain origin. While the Christian Arabic name يَسُوع(yasūʿ) can be considered a phonetically regular equivalent of Hebrew יֵשׁוּעַ(yēšū́aʿ), which is and has been believed to be Jesus' historic name, the Qur'anic عِيسَى (ʿīsā) seems to be a phonetic modification. The common name Safaitic 𐪒𐪊𐪚(ʿs¹y) likely represents tha same name, but cannot be securely linked to Jesus. Several theories have been brought forward to explain why the letter ayn was apparently shifted from the last to the first position. It has been noted that ayn was not pronounced in some dialects of Aramaic, including that likely spoken by Jesus himself (compare for this Hebrew יֵשׁוּ(yēšū́)). Moreover, there are indications that an unetymological word-initial ayn may have occurred more often in Arabic loans from Aramaic (compare Classical Syriac ܝܼܫܘܿܥ(Išōʿ, Jesus, Joshua)). Dye and Kropp suggest that this may be an orthographic device borrowed from Classical Mandaic, where ayn was lost in pronunciation, but used to indicate long initial /i/. Another popular theory, however unacceptable for Muslims, is that Muḥammad or whoever compiled the Qur'an confused Jesus with Esau, in Arabic عِيسَو(ʿīsaw)—possibly due to an anti-Christian nickname used by Arabian Jews. In another view it is just arbitrarily altered to rhyme with مُوسَى(mūsā, Moses). For more information, see Isa (name) on Wikipedia.

PronunciationEdit

 
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Proper nounEdit

عِيسَى (ʿīsām

  1. (Islam) Jesus (Isa), son of Mary, revered as a major prophet in Islam.
    Synonym: يَسُوع(yasūʿ) (Christianity)
  2. A male given name, equivalent to English Isa

DeclensionEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • عِيسَى (ʿīsā) is used almost exclusively in Islamic contexts. Arabic-speaking Christians call Jesus يَسُوع(yasūʿ).

Derived termsEdit

Coordinate termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Armenian: Իսա (Isa)
  • Bashkir: Ғайса (Ğaysa)
  • Kabyle: Ɛisa
  • Kazakh: Иса (Ïsa)
  • Malay: Isa
    • Indonesian: Isa
  • Persian: عیسی('Isâ)
  • Turkish: İsa

ReferencesEdit

  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1890) , “Miscellen”, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes (in German), volume 4, pages 334–337
  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, pages 219–220
  • Dye, Guillaume and Manfred Kropp (2011) "Le nom de Jésus (‘Îsâ) dans le Coran et quelques autres noms bibliques: remarques sur l’onomastique coranique", in Figures bibliques en islam, sous la direction de Guillaume Dye et Fabien Nobilio