ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

Uncertain. Bravmann proposes an origin in إِلَّا كَانَ(ʾillā kāna, except that [it/he] were), but does not provide a convincing explanation for the contraction of the ā or for the suspicious similarity to أَنْ(ʾan) and أَنَّ(ʾanna) in the alternation of the ending.[1]

Pronunciation 1Edit

  • IPA(key): /laː.kin.na/
  • (file)

ConjunctionEdit

لٰكِنَّ (lākinna)

  1. but, however
InflectionEdit
Usage notesEdit
  • لٰكِنَّ(lākinna) functions like إِنَّ(ʾinna) and أَنَّ(ʾanna), shifting the subject of the subordinate clause to the accusative case. The subject of the subordinate clause must immediately follow لٰكِنَّ(lākinna); if it is a pronoun, it must be expressed. Contrast this syntactic function and the following examples with لٰكِنْ(lākin) below.
    لٰكِنَّ الرَّئِيسَ كَانَ أَذْكَى مِمَّا تَوَقَّعَ النَّاس
    lākinna r-raʾīsa kāna ʾaḏkā mimmā tawaqqaʿa n-nās
    but the president was smarter than people expected
    لٰكِنَّهُ كَانَ أَذْكَى مِمَّا تَوَقَّعَ النَّاس
    lākinnahu kāna ʾaḏkā mimmā tawaqqaʿa n-nās
    but he was smarter than people expected
See alsoEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit

ConjunctionEdit

لٰكِنْ (lākin)

  1. but, however
  2. but, rather
    لَمْ يُسَافِرِ الطُّلَابُ لٰكِنْ وَكِيلُهُمْ
    lam yusāfiri ṭ-ṭulābu lākin wakīluhum
    The students didn’t travel but their principal did.
    Synonym: بَلْ(bal)
  3. but not, after an affirmative.
Usage notesEdit
  • لٰكِنْ(lākin) acts as a simple conjunction, with the subject of the subordinate clause in the nominative; the subject may follow immediately or be delayed. If it is a pronoun, it may be omitted. Contrast this syntactic function and the following examples with لٰكِنَّ(lākinna) above.
    لٰكِنِ الرَّئِيسُ كَانَ أَذْكَى مِمَّا تَوَقَّعَ النَّاس
    lākini r-raʾīsu kāna ʾaḏkā mimmā tawaqqaʿa n-nās
    but the president was smarter than people expected
    لٰكِنْ (هُوَ) كَانَ أَذْكَى مِمَّا تَوَقَّعَ النَّاس
    lākin (huwa) kāna ʾaḏkā mimmā tawaqqaʿa n-nās
    but he was smarter than people expected
  • لٰكِنْ(lākin) is often preceded by وَـ(wa-, and).

DescendantsEdit

  • Persian: لیکن
  • Swahili: lakini
  • Uzbek: lekin

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bravmann, Meïr Max (1977) , “Arabic lākin(na) and Related Expressions”, in Studies in Semitic Philology (Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics; VI), Leiden: E. J. Brill, pages 338–342