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Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Semitic *šim.



إِن (ʾin)

  1. (conditional) if (possible, not contrary to fact)
    إِنْ تَدْرُسْ تَنْجَحْ‎ ― ʾin tadrus tanjaḥif you study you (will) succeed
    إِن أَحْبَبْتَنِي‎ ― ʾin ʾaḥbabta-nīif you love me
    إِن تُحْبِبْنِي‎ ― ʾin tuḥbib-nīif you love me
    إِن شَاءَ ٱللّٰه‎ ― ʾin šāʾa llāhif God/Allah wills

Usage notesEdit

Normally for conditions that are capable of being fulfilled. For contrary-to-fact conditions, use لَوْ(law). Used with the past tense or the jussive, in both cases with a present-tense meaning.

Etymology 2Edit

Cognate to Hebrew הִנֵּה(lo, behold).[1][2]



إِنَّ (ʾinna)

  1. indeed, an emphasizing sentence particle, usually untranslated
    إِنِّي فَقِير وَلَا أَجِدُ‏ طَعَامًا أُطْعِمُ أَوْلَادِي وَعَائِلَتِي، فَسَاعِدْنِي.‎‎
    ʾinnī faqīr walā ʾajidu ṭaʿāman ʾuṭʿimu ʾawlādī waʿāʾilatī, fasāʿidnī.
    I am poor and can't find food to feed my children and my family, so please help me.
  2. that (following the verb قَالَ(qāla, to say) and the corresponding verbal noun قَوْل(qawl))
Usage notesEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Cognate to Hebrew אין(ein).



إِنْ (ʾin)

  1. not
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 67:20:
      إِنِ الْكَافِرُونَ إلاَّ فِي غُرُورٍ
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 4:62:
      إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا
      ʾin ʾaradnā ʾillā ʾiḥsānan watawfīqan
      (please add an English translation of this quote)



  1. ^ Lipiński, Edward (2001) Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar, page 482: One of the oldest and most important presentatives is *han, attested in Palaeosyrian and in Old Akkadian en-ma, later umma by assimilation. It is found in Ugaritic (hn), in Old Canaanite (a-nu, a-nu-ú, an-nu, an-nu-ú), in Hebrew (hinnē), in Arabic (ʾinna), In Ge'ez (ʾən-ka); e.g. Arabic ʾinna llāha ʾalā kulli šayʾin qadīrun, "behold, God has power over everything". It should be identified with the West Semitic article han-, but carefully distinguished from the conditional particle hnʾn.
  2. ^ Hetzron, Robert (1997) The Semitic Languages, page 201: The [Arabic] particle ʾinna, etymologically cognate to Hebrew hen, hinne: "behold", emphasizes that the speaker's utterance is true.