See also: گھand گه

PashtoEdit

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

که ()

  1. if
  2. or

ReferencesEdit


PersianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From earlier کو(ku), from Middle Persian 𐭠𐭩𐭪(AYK /kū/), cognate with Northern Kurdish ku.

PronunciationEdit

  • Rhymes: -e

ConjunctionEdit

Dari که
Iranian Persian
Tajik ки (ki)

که (ke)

  1. that; subordinates a clause to a main clause
    شنیدم که با فرشته ازدواج کرد.‎‎
    šenidam ke bâ ferešte ezdevâj kard.
    I heard that he got married to Fereshteh.
    نمی‌دونستم که پسرشون پشتو بلده.‎‎
    ne-mi-dunestam ke pesarešun pašto balade.
    I didn't know that their son knows Pashto.
  2. that, which, when, where; subordinates a clause to a noun phrase
    آن کتابی را که به تو دادم هنوز می‌خوانی؟‎‎ (more literary)
    ân ketâb-i-râ ke be to dâdam hanuz mi-xâni?
    اون کتابی رو که بهت دادم هنوز می‌خونیش؟‎‎ (more colloquial)
    on ketâb-i-ro ke behet dâdam hanuz mi-xuniš?
    Are you still reading the book that I gave you?
    آن زنی را که بهرنگ با او ازدواج می‌کند می‌شناسی؟‎‎ (more literary)
    ân zan-i-râ ke behrang bâ u ezdevâj mi-konad mi-šenâsi?
    اون زنی رو که بهرنگ باهاش ازدواج می‌کنه می‌شناسیش؟‎‎ (more colloquial)
    un zan-i-ro ke behrang bâhâš ezdevâj mi-kone mi-šnâsiš?
    Do you know the woman to whom Behrang is getting married?
    آن شهر که من در آن زندگی می‌کردم بزرگ است.‎‎ (more literary)
    ân šahr ke man dar ân zendegi mi-kardam bozorg ast.
    اون شهر که من تو اون زندگی می‌کردم بزرگه.‎‎ (more colloquial)
    un šahr ke man tu un zendegi mi-kardam bozorg-e.
    That city where I used to live was big.
Usage notesEdit

Colloquially, often dropped when joining two clauses, but not when attributing a noun phrase.

Unlike English, which has whose and which can also end subordinate clauses with prepositions or displace which to after the preposition, Persian که(ke) is used regardless of the semantic relationship and is also fixed as the opening word of the subordinate clause. Therefore, if the noun phrase is not the subject or direct object of the subordinate clause, the subordinate clause must explicitly mark the semantics to avoid ambiguity:

خانه‌ای که به آن فکر می‌کردند
xâne-i ke be ân fekr mi-kardand
the house which they were thinking about
(literally, “the house that they were thinking about it”)
زنی که بچه‌اش در قطار به دنیا آمد
zân-i ke bačče-aš dar qatâr be donyâ âmad
the woman whose child was born in a train
(literally, “the woman that her child was born in a train”)

If the noun phrase is the direct object, marking it with the particle را() within the subordinate clause is still possible but not obligatory.

DescendantsEdit
  • Azerbaijani: ki
  • Gujarati: કે (ke)
  • Hindustani:
    Hindi: कि (ki)
    Urdu: کہ(ke (kih))
  • Marathi: की ()
  • Ottoman Turkish: كه‎(ki)
  • Punjabi:
    Gurmukhi: ਕਿ (ki)
    Shahmukhi: کہ(kh)

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Iranian, from Proto-Indo-Iranian, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kʷis.

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

Dari
Iranian Persian که
Tajik ке (ke)

که (ke)

  1. who

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

که (kah)

  1. Alternative form of کاه
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Persian.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

Dari که
Iranian Persian
Tajik кеҳ (keh)

که (keh)

  1. (archaic) small

NounEdit

که (keh) (plural کهان(kehân))

  1. (archaic) small

Etymology 5Edit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

که (koh)

  1. Alternative form of کوه