See also: Self, šelf, self-, -self, and self.

English edit

 
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Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English self, silf, sulf, from Old English self, seolf, sylf, from Proto-Germanic *selbaz. Cognates include Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐌻𐌱𐌰 (silba), German selbst and Dutch zelf.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

self

  1. (obsolete) Himself, herself, itself, themselves; that specific (person mentioned).
    This argument was put forward by the defendant self.
    • 1898 July 18, The Leader, Melbourne, page 34, column 1:
      Now that I put on my glasses I could see that the hut was empty but for our two selves; that it must have been absolutely empty till we entered.
  2. (commercial or humorous) Myself.
    I made out a cheque, payable to self, which cheered me up somewhat.

Noun edit

self (plural selves or selfs)

  1. One individual's personality, character, demeanor, or disposition.
    one's true self; one's better self; one's former self
  2. The subject of one's own experience of phenomena: perception, emotions, thoughts.
    • c. 1596–1598 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act II, scene ix]:
      Portia:
      To these injunctions every one doth swear
      That comes to hazard for my worthless self.
    • 1913, Mrs. [Marie] Belloc Lowndes, chapter I, in The Lodger, London: Methuen, →OCLC; republished in Novels of Mystery: The Lodger; The Story of Ivy; What Really Happened, New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., [], [1933], →OCLC, page 0056:
      Thanks to that penny he had just spent so recklessly [on a newspaper] he would pass a happy hour, taken, for once, out of his anxious, despondent, miserable self. It irritated him shrewdly to know that these moments of respite from carking care would not be shared with his poor wife, with careworn, troubled Ellen.
  3. An individual person as the object of the person's own reflective consciousness (plural selves).
    • 1859–1860, William Hamilton, “Lecture IX”, in H[enry] L[ongueville] Mansel and John Veitch, editors, Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic [], volumes (please specify |volume=I to IV), Edinburgh, London: William Blackwood and Sons, →OCLC:
      The self, the I, is recognized in every act of intelligence as the subject to which that act belongs. It is I that perceive, I that imagine, I that remember, I that attend, I that compare, I that feel, I that will, I that am conscious.
    • 1918, W[illiam] B[abington] Maxwell, chapter XVI, in The Mirror and the Lamp, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, →OCLC:
      The preposterous altruism too! [] Resist not evil. It is an insane immolation of self—as bad intrinsically as fakirs stabbing themselves or anchorites warping their spines in caves scarcely large enough for a fair-sized dog.
  4. Self-interest or personal advantage.
  5. Identity or personality.
  6. (botany) A seedling produced by self-pollination (plural selfs).
  7. (botany) A flower having its colour uniform as opposed to variegated.
  8. (molecular biology, immunology) Any molecule, cell, or tissue of an organism's own (belonging to the self), as opposed to a foreign (nonself) molecule, cell, or tissue (for example, infective, allogenic, or xenogenic).
    • 2000, G Ristori et al., “Compositional bias and mimicry toward the nonself proteome in immunodominant T cell epitopes of self and nonself antigens”, in FASEB Journal: the official journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, volume 14, number 3, →PMID, pages 431–438:
      Similarity profiles between helper T cell epitopes (of self or microbial antigens and allergens) and human or microbial SWISSPROT collections were produced. For each antigen, both collections yielded largely overlapping profiles, demonstrating that self-nonself discrimination does not rely on qualitative features that distinguish human from microbial peptides. [...] Epitopes (on self and nonself antigens) can cross-stimulate T cells at increasing potency as their similarity with nonself augments.
    • 2013 May-June, Katrina G. Claw, “Rapid Evolution in Eggs and Sperm”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3:
      In plants, the ability to recognize self from nonself plays an important role in fertilization, because self-fertilization will result in less diverse offspring than fertilization with pollen from another individual.

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Verb edit

self (third-person singular simple present selfs, present participle selfing, simple past and past participle selfed)

  1. (botany) To fertilize by the same individual; to self-fertilize or self-pollinate.
  2. (botany) To fertilize by the same strain; to inbreed.

Antonyms edit

Adjective edit

self

  1. Having its own or a single nature or character throughout, as in colour, composition, etc., without addition or change; of the same kind; unmixed.
    a self bow: one made from a single piece of wood
    a self flower or plant: one which is wholly of one colour
  2. (obsolete) Same, identical.
  3. (obsolete) Belonging to oneself; own.
  4. (molecular biology, immunology) Of or relating to any molecule, cell, or tissue of an organism's own (belonging to the self), as opposed to a foreign (nonself) molecule, cell, or tissue (for example, infective, allogenic, or xenogenic).
    Antonym: nonself
    • 2000, G Ristori et al., “Compositional bias and mimicry toward the nonself proteome in immunodominant T cell epitopes of self and nonself antigens”, in FASEB Journal: the official journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, volume 14, number 3, →PMID, pages 431–438:
      Similarity profiles between helper T cell epitopes (of self or microbial antigens and allergens) and human or microbial SWISSPROT collections were produced. For each antigen, both collections yielded largely overlapping profiles, demonstrating that self-nonself discrimination does not rely on qualitative features that distinguish human from microbial peptides. However, epitopes whose probability of mimicry with self or nonself prevails are, respectively, tolerated or immunodominant and coexist within the same (auto-)antigen regardless of its self/nonself nature. Epitopes (on self and nonself antigens) can cross-stimulate T cells at increasing potency as their similarity with nonself augments.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Hall, Joseph Sargent (March 2, 1942), “3. The Consonants”, in The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech (American Speech: Reprints and Monographs; 4), New York: King's Crown Press, →DOI, →ISBN, § 2, page 88.

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Danish edit

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Adverb edit

self

  1. (Internet slang) Abbreviation of selvfølgelig (of course).

Maltese edit

Root
s-l-f
5 terms

Etymology edit

From Arabicسَلَف(salaf).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

self m

  1. loan

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old English self, from Proto-West Germanic *selb, from Proto-Germanic *selbaz.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

self

  1. (the) (very/self) same, (the) aforementioned
  2. Intensifies the pronoun or noun it follows or precedes; very
  3. (+genitive) own

Descendants edit

  • English: self
  • Scots: self, sel

References edit

Pronoun edit

self

  1. themself, themselves; a reflexive pronoun
  2. that, this

Descendants edit

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Noun edit

self (plural selfs)

  1. (the) same thing, (the) aforementioned thing

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Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *selbaz.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

self

  1. self; oneself, personally
    • late 9th century, translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History
      Sē wer meahte unēaðe þurh hine selfne ārīsan oþþe gān.
      The man could barely get up or walk by himself.
    • late 9th century, King Alfred's translation of St. Augustine's Soliloquies
      Nāt iċ nā þȳ hwā Rōme burg timbrede þe iċ hit self ġesāwe, ac for þȳ þe hit man mē sæġde.
      I don't know who built the city of Rome because I saw it myself, but because somebody told me.

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

Old Saxon edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *selbaz.

Pronoun edit

self

  1. self

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Descendants edit